Izifundo ezingamashumi amabili nanye

Engikufundile kuhambo lami olungajwayelekile lwe-Bitcoin


"Oh, wena Alice wesilima" waphinda washo, "ungafunda kanjani izifundo lapha? Ngani, asikho isikhala sakho, futhi asikho nhlobo isikhala sanoma yiziphi izincwadi zezifundo!

“Ngiyincoma kakhulu le ncwadi. Uma umusha ku-bitcoin, yithenge ku-Amazon. Uma uyi-Hodler (umuntu othenga imali yedigithi bese ayigcine nanoma amandla wayo ehla), funda incwadi ku-inthanethi bese uthumela i-bitcoin ngqo* ku-Gigi.” - Isakhiwo Esincane

Unogwaja Omhlophe ufake izibuko zakhe. ‘Ngizoqala ngaphi, ngiyakucela wena Nkosi?’ ebuza. ‘Qala ekuqaleni’ kusho iNkosi ngokungathi sina, ‘futhi uqhubeke ufike ekugcineni: bese ume.’

Usulungele ukungena e-Wonderland? Landela unogwaja omhlophe →

Isandulela


U-Alice omncane wawa
d
o
w
n
umgOdi,
washaya ngekhanda
futhi wawulimaza umphefumulo wakhe.
"

Uhambo lwami lwe-Bitcoin kuyinto engavamile. Njengabanye abaningi, ngizizwa sengathi ngifunde okuningi eminyakeni embalwa edlule ngifunda i-Bitcoin kunalokho engikufundile phakathi kweminyaka engamashumi amabili yemfundo ejwayelekile.

Izifundo ezilandelayo ziyisifinyezo kwalokho okubalulekile engikufundile. Ishicilelwe okokuqala njengochungechunge lwe-athikili esinesihloko esithi “Engikufundile Ku-Bitcoin,”open in new window okulandelayo kungabonwa njengohlelo lwesibili lochungechunge lokuqala.

NjengeBitcoin, lezi zifundo aziyona into emile. Ngihlela ukusebenza kuzo ngezikhathi ezithile, ngikhiphe izinguqulo ezibuyekeziwe nezinto ezengeziwe esikhathini esizayo.

Ngokungafani ne-Bitcoin, izinguqulo zesikhathi esizayo zale phrojekthi akudingeki zihambisane nemuva. Ezinye izifundo zingase zandiswe, ezinye zisetshenzwe kabusha noma zishintshwe. Ngethemba ukuthi inguqulo yesikhathi esizayo izoba yinto ongayibamba ezandleni zakho, kodwa angifuni ukuthembisa noma yini okwamanje.

I-Bitcoin ingumfundisi ongenakuphela, yingakho ngingasho ukuthi lezi zifundo zihlanganisa konke noma ziphelele. Ziyinkomba yohambo lwami olungajwayelekile. Ziningi ezinye izifundo okufanele zifundwe, futhi wonke umuntu uzofunda okuhlukile ngokungena emhlabeni weBitcoin.

Ngethemba ukuthi uzothola lezi zifundo ziwusizo nokuthi indlela yokuzifunda ngokufunda ngeke ibe nzima futhi ibe buhlungu njengokuzifunda wena mathupha.

Gigiopen in new window



Isingeniso


"Kodwa angifuni ukuya phakathi kwabantu abahlanyayo," kuphawula u-Alice.
"Oh, akukho ongakwenza ngalokho, kusho iKati: "sihlanya sonke lapha. Ngiyahlanya. Uyahlanya."
""Wazi kanjani ukuthi ngiyahlanya?"" kusho u-Alice.
"Kufanele ube njalo," kusho iKati, "noma ubungeke uze lapha." "
"

Ngo-Okthoba 2018, u-Arjun Balaji wabuza umbuzo ongenacala, Ufundeni ku-Bitcoin?open in new window Ngemva kokuzama ukuphendula lo mbuzo ku-tweet emfushane, futhi ngehluleka ngokudabukisayo, ngabona ukuthi izinto engizifundile ziningi kakhulu ukuphendula ngokushesha, uma kunjalo.

Kusobala izinto engizifundile zimayelana ngeBitcoin - noma okungenani zihlobene nayo. Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi eminye imisebenzi yangaphakathi yeBitcoin ichazwa, izifundo ezilandelayo akuyona incazelo yokuthi i-Bitcoin isebenza kanjani noma iyini, zingasiza nokho ukuhlola ezinye zezinto ezithinta i-Bitcoin: imibuzo yefilosofi, amaqiniso wezomnotho, kanye nezindlela ezintsha zobuchwepheshe.

Izifundo ezingamashumi amabili nanye zihlelwe zaba yizinqwaba eziyisikhombisa, zenza izahluko ezintathu. Isahluko ngasinye sibheka i-Bitcoin ngeso elihlukile, sikhipha ukuthi yiziphi izifundo ezingafundwa ngokuhlola le nethiwekhi eyinqaba ngenye indlela.

Isahluko 1 sihlola izimfundiso zefilosofi yeBitcoin. Ukusebenzisana kokungaguquki noshintsho, umqondo wokushoda kweqiniso, umcabango weBitcoin omsulwa, inkinga yobunikazi, ukuphikisana kokuphindaphinda kanye nendawo, amandla okukhuluma ngokukhululeka, kanye nemingcele yolwazi.

Isahluko 2 sihlola izimfundiso zomnotho ze-Bitcoin. Izimfundo ezimayelana nokungazi ngezezimali, ukwehla kwamandla emali, inani, imali kanye nomlando wemali,uhlelo lapho ingxenye yokufaka imali ebhange ixhaswe ngemali yangempela ekhona, nokuthi i-Bitcoin iphinde yethula kanjani imali ezinzile ngobuqili, ezungezayo.

Isahluko 3 sihlola ezinye zezifundo ezitholwe ngokuhlola ubuchwepheshe be-Bitcoin. Kungani kukhona amandla ezinombolweni, ukucabanga ngokuthembana, kungani ukusho kumsebenzi, ukuthi ukuhamba kancane futhi ungaphuli izinto kuyisici hhayi iphutha, ukuthi ukudalwa kwe-Bitcoin kungasitshelani ngobumfihlo, kungani ama- cypherpunks(abantu abasebenzisa inethiwekhi yekhompyutha ukuguqula ulwazi balenze ikhodi) abhala ikhodi (hhayi imithetho), futhi yiziphi izingathekiso ezingase zibe usizo ukuhlola ikusasa le-Bitcoin.

Isifundo ngasinye siqukethe izingcaphuno ezimbalwa kanye nezixhumanisi kuwo wonke umbhalo. Uma ngihlole umbono ngokwanele, ungathola izixhumanisi zemisebenzi yami esigabeni esithi "Through the Looking Glass". Uma uthanda ukujula, izixhumanisi zezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu zibalwe esigabeni esithi "Down the Rabbit Hole." Kokubili kungatholakala ekugcineni kwesifundo ngasinye."

Noma ulwazi oluthile lwangaphambili ngeBitcoin luzuzisa, ngithemba ukuthi lezi zifundo zingaqondwa yinoma yimuphi umfundi ofuna ukwazi. Nakuba ezinye zihlobene, isifundo ngasinye kufanele sikwazi ukuzimela futhi singafundwa sisodwa. Ngenze konke okusemandleni ami ukubalekela amagama akhethekile wobuchwepheshe, noma isilulumagama esithile sesizinda asigwemeki.

Ngithemba ukuthi ukubhala kwami ​​kusebenza njengenkuthazo kwabanye ukuthi bangenelele phakathi futhi bahlole eminye yemibuzo ejulile evezwa yi-Bitcoin. Ugqozi lwami luvela kubabhali abaningi nabadali bolwazi okuyibona engibabonga unaphakade.

Okokugcina: inhloso yami ngokubhala lokhu akukhona ukukukholisa nganoma yini. Umgomo wami ukukwenza ucabange, futhi ngikubonise ukuthi kuningi okungaziwa nge-Bitcoin kunalokhu esikwaziyo. Angikwazi ngisho nokukutshela ukuthi i-Bitcoin iyini noma i-Bitcoin izokufundisani. Kuzofanele ukuzitholele lokho ngokwakho.

"Ngemva kwalokhu akusekho ukujikela emuva. Uphuza iphilisi eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka  --- indaba iyaphela,uvuka embhedeni wakho ukholwe noma yini ofuna ukuyikholwa.Uphuza iphilisi elibomvu --- uhlala e-Wonderland, bese ngikubonise ukuthi umgodi onogwaja ujule kangakanani. Morpheusopen in new window"

Isahluko I: Ifilosofi


Igundane lambheka ngokufuna ukwazi, futhi kwabonakala sengathi licwayiza ngelinye lamehlo alo amancane, kodwa alishongo lutho.
"

Ukubheka i-Bitcoin kancane, umuntu angase aphethe ngokuthi ihamba kancane, iyamosha, ayinaso isidingo, futhi isabisa ngokweqile. Ukubheka i-Bitcoin ngokubuza, umuntu angase athole ukuthi izinto azihambi njengoba zibonakala ekuqaleni.

I-Bitcoin inendlela yokuthatha imibono yakho bese iyiphendule emakhanda wayo. Ngemva kwesikhashana, lapho usathi uyakhululeka futhi, i-Bitcoin izo bhodloza udonga njengenkunzi esitolo sama-shayina bese iphihlize imicabango yakho futhi.

Izindela eziyizimpumputhe zihlola inkunzi ye-Bitcoin

I-Bitcoin iyingane yezifundo eziningi. Njengezindela eziyizimpumputhe zihlola indlovu, wonke umuntu osondela kulobu buchwepheshe obungakavami ukwenza ngendlela ehlukile. Futhi wonke umuntu uzofinyelela eziphethweni ezahlukene mayelana nemvelo yesilo.

Izifundo ezilandelayo zimayelana nemibono yami ​​ephulwe yi-Bitcoin, kanye neziphetho engifike kuzo. Imibuzo yefilosofi yokungaguquki, yokushoda, yendawo, kanye neyobunikazi ihlolwa ezifundweni ezine zokuqala.

Isifundo sesi-5 sihlola ukuthi indaba yemvelaphi ye-Bitcoin ayigcini nje ngokuthakazelisa kodwa ibaluleke kakhulu ohlelweni olungenamholi. Izifundo ezimbili zokugcina zalesi sisahluko zihlola amandla okukhuluma ngokukhululeka kanye nemikhawulo yolwazi lomuntu ngamunye, oluboniswa ukujula okumangazayo kwehambo lwe-Bitcoin olungakavami.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi uzothola umhlaba we-Bitcoin ufundisa, uthakazelisa futhi ujabulisa njengoba ngenza namanje. Ngiyakumema ukuthi ulandele unogwaja omhlophe futhi uhlole ukujula kwalo mgodi onogwaja. Manje bambelela ewashini lakho lephaketheni, uwele phansi, futhi ujabulele ukuwa.


Isifundo 1: Ukungaguquki kanye noshintsho


Ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe ngishintshiwe yini ebusuku. Ake ngicabange. Ngabe bengifana ngenkathi ngivuka namhlanje ekuseni? Cishe ngicabange ukuthi ngisakhumbula ngizizwa ngihlukile. Kodwa uma ngingefani, umbuzo olandelayo uthi 'Ngingubani mina emhlabeni?' Ah, indida enkulu leyo!
"

Ngemvelo i-Bitcoin inzima ukuyichaza. Iyinto entsha, futhi nanoma iyiphi imizamo yokuqhathanisa imiqondo yangaphambilini --- noba ukuyibiza igolide ledijithali noma imale ye-inthanethi ---  nakanjani iyohluleka ukugcina izinga elithile ngokuphelele. Noma ngabe isifaniso osithandayo singaba yini, izici ezimbili ze-Bitcoin zibaluleke kakhulu: ukusabalalisa kanye nokungaguquki.

Enye indlela yokucabanga nge-Bitcoin inkontileka yomphakathi ezenzakalelayoopen in new window. Isofthiwe iwucezu olulodwa nje lwephazili, futhi ukuba nethemba lokushintsha i-Bitcoin ngokushintsha isofthiwe kuwumsebenzi ongenasidingo. Umuntu uzodinga ukukholisa yonke inethiwekhi ukuthi yamukele izinguquko, okungumzamo kakhulukhulu wengqondo kunobunjiniyela besofthiwe.

Okulandelayo kungase kuzwakale kungenangqondo ekuqaleni, njengezinye izinto eziningi kule ndawo, kodwa ngikholwa ukuthi kuyiqiniso kakhulu nokho: Wena ngeke uyishintshe i-Bitcoin, kodwa i-Bitcoin izoshintsha wena.

"I-Bitcoin iyona ezosishintsha kakhulu kunokuthi sishintshe yona." - U-Marty Bentopen in new window

Kungithathe isikhathi eside ukubona ukujula kwalokhu. Njengoba i-Bitcoin iyisofthiwe nje kanti futhi yonke ingumthombo ovulekile, ungamane ushintshe izinto ngentando, akunjalo? Akulungile. Akulungile kakhulu. Ngokungangabazeki, umdali we-Bitcoin ubekwazi kahle kamhlophe lokhu.

Imvelo ye-Bitcoin ingalendlela yokuthi ngenkathi inhlobo ye-0.1 ikhishwa, umklamo okuyiwona wenzwa ngendlela engeke ishintseke kukho konke ukuphila kwayo. - U- Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Abantu abaningi bazamile ukushintsha imvelo ye-Bitcoin. Kuze kube manje bonke behlulekile. Nakuba kukhona ingqwaba engapheli yama-forks (ukuhlukana okwenzekayo entengisweni, okudala inguquko entsha ye-Bitcoin) nama-altcoins (inhlobo yezimali ezithile zedijithi zifana kodwa okungezona i-Bitcoin). Inethiwekhi ye-Bitcoin isenza into yayo, njengoba yenza ngenkathi i-node (indawo enethiwekhini lapho imigqa iphambana khona) iqala ukuya ku-inthanethi. Ama-altcoins ngeke abe nesidingo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Ama-forks azogcina abulawa yindlala. I-Bitcoin yinto ebalulekile. Uma nje ukuqonda kwethu okuqavile ngezibalo kanye/noma i-physics kungashintshi, i-honeybadger ye-Bitcoin izoqhubeka nokunganaki.

"I-Bitcoin yisibonelo sokuqala sendlela entsha yokuphila. Iphila futhi iphefumula ku-inthanethi. Iphila ngoba ingakwazi ukukhokhela abantu ukuthi bayigcine iphila. [...] Ngeke ishintshwe. Ngeke kuxatshanwe nayo. Ngeke iphazanyiswe. Ngeke yonakaliswe. Ngeke imiswe. [...] Uma impi yenuzi ibhubhisa ingxenye yepulanethi yethu, izoqhubeka iphile, ingonakalisiwe. " - u-Ralph Merkleopen in new window

Ukushaya kwenhliziyo kwenethiwekhi ye-Bitcoin kuzodlula konke okwethu.

Ukuqaphela okungenhla kungishintshe kakhulu kunamabhulokhi adlule we-blockchain (uhlelo lapho kugcinwa khona amarekhodi wokuthengiselana enzwe ku-Bitcoin) ye-Bitcoin angangishintsha ngakhona. Ishintshe isikhathi esithandwa yimi, ukuqonda kwami kwezomnotho, imibono yami yezepolitiki, nokunye okuningi. Ngisho futhi ishintsha indlela abantu badla ngayoopen in new window. Uma konke lokhu kuzwakala njengomsangano kuwena, usendaweni elungile. Konke lokhu umsangano, kodwa kusenzeka.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ngeke ishintshe. Yimina ozoshintsha.


Isifundo 2: Ukushoda Kokushoda


Sekwanele impela — ngithemba ukuthi ngeke ngisakhula...

Ngokujwayelekile, ukuthuthuka kobuchwepheshe kubonakala kwenza izinto zibe ziningi ngokundlulele. Abantu ngobuningi bayakwazi ukuzijabulisa ngempahla eyayibiza ngaphambilini. Maduzane, sonke sizophila njengamakhosi. Iningi lethu seliphila njalo. Njengoba u-Peter Diamandis wabhala ku Abundanceopen in new window: "Ubuchwepheshe indlela yokukhulula izinsiza. Bungenza ukuthi okwakuyimvelakancane manje kube kuningi."

I-Bitcoin, ebuchwepheshe obuthuthukisiwe ngokwayo, iphula lo mkhuba bese idale impahla entsha, okuyimvelakancane ngempela. Abanye baze baphikise ngokuthi ingenye yezinto eziyimvelakancane emhlabeni. Ukunikezwa akukwazi ukukhuphuka, nanoma umuntu angakhetha ukwenza umzamo ongakanani wokudala okuningi.

"Zimbili kuphela izinto eziyimvelakancane ngempela: isikhathi kanye ne-bitcoin." - U- Saifedean Ammousopen in new window

Okuxakayo, lokho ikwenza ngendlela yokukopisha. Ukuthengiselana kuyasakazwa, ama-blocks (izakhi zedatha) ayasakazwa, ileja esabalalisiwe i--- ngakho, uqagele --- isabalalisiwe. Konke lokhu amagama aphezulu wokukopisha. Ngisho, i-Bitcoin iyazikopisha kumakhompyutha amaningi, ngokugqugquzela abantu ukuthi basebenzise ama-node aphelele futhi ikhipha ama-block amasha.

“Konke lokhu kuphindaphinda kusebenza ngokubambisana okuyisimanga, ukukhiqiza ukushoda."

Ngesikhathi senala, i-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ukushoda kwangempela kuyini.


Isifundo 3: Ukuphindaphinda kanye nendawo


Kwalandela izwi elithukuthele—elikanogwaja—"Pat, Pat! ukuphi?""
"

I-Quantum mechanics eceleni, indawo akuyona inkinga emhlabeni wenyama. Umbuzo othi "Uphi u-X?" ungaphendulwa ngendlela enomqondo, noma kukuthi u-X ungumuntu noma into. Emhlabeni wedijithali, umbuzo othi kuphi usunzinyana vele, kodwa akusho ukuthi ayikho impendulo. Aphi ama-imeyili akho, ngempela? Impendulo embi ingaba "yi-the cloud", okuyi khompyutha yomunye umuntu. Namanje, uma ubufuna ukulandela yonke idivayisi yestoreji enama-imeyili wakho kuyo, ungakwazi ngokombono, ukuwathola

Nge-bitcoin, umbuzo othi "kuphi" uyinkimbinkimbi ngempela. Akuphi, ngempela, ama-bitcoins akho?

"Ngavula amehlo ami, ngaqalaza, bese ngabuza umbuzo ongenakugwema, ojwayelekile, umbuzo obuzwa odabukisayou emva kokuhlizwa: 'Ngikuphi?'" - U-Daniel Dennettopen in new window

Inkinga ikabili: Okokuqala, incwadi esabalalisiwe isakazwa ngokuphindaphinda okugcwele, okusho ukuthi ileja ikhona yonke indawo. Okwesibili, awekho ama-bitcoins. Hhayi nje ngokomzimba, kodwa nangobuchwepheshe.

I-Bitcoin ilandelela isethi yemiphumela engasetshenziswanga, ngaphandle kokudlulisela ibhizinisini elimele i-bitcoin. Ubukhona be-bitcoin buchazwa ngokubheka isethi yemiphumela engasetshenzisiwe kanye nokubiza konke okufakwayo ngesisekelo esiyizigidi eziyi-100 zamayunithi nge-bitcoin.

"Ikuphi, ngalesi sikhathi, isendleleni? [...] Okokuqala, awekho ama-bitcoins. Awekho nje. Awekho. Kukhona izingeniso zeleja kwileja eyabiwe [...] Azikho endaweni ebonakalayo. Empeleni, ileja ikhona kuyo yonke indawo ebonakalayo. Ijografi ayiwenzi umqondo lana --- ngeke ikusize ukuthola umgomo wakho lapha." - U-Peter Van Valkenburghopen in new window

Manje, usuke uphetheni ngempela uma uthi *"Nginayo i-bitcoin"*makuwukuthi awekho ama-bitcoins? Awu, uyawakhumbula wonke lawa mazwi angajwayelekile owaphoqwa ukuthi uwabhale phansi ngasesikhwameni sakho semali owawusisebenzisa? Kuvele ukuthi lawa magama omlingo yiwona owaphethe: umlingoopen in new window okungase asetshenziswe ukwengeza izingeniso encwadini yomphakathi --- izikhiye "zokuhambisa" ama-bitcoins athile. Yingakho, ngazo zonke izinhloso nezinjongo, okhiye bakho bangasese bangama-bitcoins akho. Uma ucabanga ukuthi ngikusungula konke lokhu khululeka ukungithumela okhiye bakho bangasese.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi indawo yakithi iyibhizinisi elinzinyana.


Isifundo 4: Inkinga yobunikazi


"Ungubani wena?" kusho isibungu.
"

U-Nic Carter, ubhale ucezu oluhle kakhulu ekhasini eliyisiqalo, ngendlela u-Thomas Nagel aphathe ngayo umbuzo ofanayo [ophathelene nelulwane] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/What_Is_it_Like_to_Be_a_Bat%3F), lolucezu ludingida umbuzo olandelayo: Kunjani ukuba yi-bitcoin?open in new window. Ukhombisa ngokuhlakanipha ukuthi ama-blockchains avulekile, asesidlangalaleni ngokujwayelekile, kanye ne-Bitcoin ikakhulukazi, zihlushwa yindida efana ne Umkhumbi ka-Theseusopen in new window: iyiphi i-Bitcoin eyi-Bitcoin yangempela?

"Cabanga nje ukuthi kuncane kangakanani ukuphikelela kwezingxenye ze-Bitcoin. Yonke i-codebase yenziwe kabusha, yashintshwa, futhi yanwetshwa kangangokuthi icishe ifane nenguqulo yayo yoqobo. [...] Irejista yokuthi ubani uphetheni, ileja ngokwayo, iwukuphela kwesici esiqhubekayo senethiwekhi [...]

Ukuze uthathwe njengomuntu ongenamholi ngempela, kufanele unikele isisombululo esilula sokuba nebhizinisi elingaqoka iketango elilodwa elizoba semthethweni." - U-Nic Carteropen in new window

Kubonakala sengathi intuthuko yobuchwepheshe ilokhu isiphoqa ukuthi sithathe le mibuzo yefilosofi njengento ebalulekile. Maduze, izimoto ezizishayelayo zizobhekana nezinguqulo zomhlaba wangempela [inkinga yetroli](https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Inkinga_yeTrolley), zizophoqeka ukuthi zenze izinqumo ezilungile mayelana nokuthi ezikabani izimpilo ezibalulekile nezingakabaluleki.

Izimali zedijithi, ikakhulukazi ukusukela ku-hard-fork(ushintsho olukhulu kuphrothokholi yenethiwekhi ye-blockchain) yokuqala ephikisanayo, zisiphoqelele ukuthi sicabange futhi sivumelane nge-metaphysics yobunikazi. Ngokuthakazelisayo, izibonelo ezimbili ezinkulu esinazo kuze kube manje ziholele kwezimbili izimpendulo ezahlukene. Ngo-Agasti 1, 2017, i-Bitcoin yahlukana yaba amakamu amabili. Imakethe yanquma ukuthi iketango elingashintshiwe liyi-Bitcoin yasekuqaleni. Unyaka wokuqala ngaphambili, ngo-Okthoba 25, 2016, i-Ethereum (inkundla enikwe amandla ubuchwepheshe be-blockchain) ihlukane yaba amakamu amabili. Imakethe inqume ukuthi iketango elishintshiwe liyi-Ethereum yasekuqaleni.

Uma ihlukaniswe kahle, imibuzo ebuzwe ngumkhumbi ka-Theseus kuzomele iphendulwe ingunaphakade inqobo nje uma la manethiwekhi we-value-transfer(inethiwekhi yabantu abathola imali ukuze bayithumele kwabanye abantu) akhona.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ukusabalalisa kuphambanisa ubunikazi.


Isifundo 5: Umcabango omuhle


"Amakhanda abo awekho," amasosha amemeza ephendula...

Wonke umuntu uyayithanda indaba enhle yemvelaphi. Indaba yomsuka we-Bitcoin iyathakazelisa, futhi imininingwane yayo ibaluleke kakhulu ukundlula lokhu umuntu ebekucabanga ekuqaleni. Ubani u-Satoshi Nakamoto? Wayengumuntu oyedwa noma iqembu labantu? Ingabe wayengumuntu owesifazane? Umfokazi ohamba isikhathi, noma i-AI ethuthukisiwe? Asibeke imibono yangaphandle eceleni, mhlawumbe ngeke sazi. Kanti lokhu kubalulekile.

U-Satoshi wakhetha ukungaziwa. Watshala imbewu ye-Bitcoin. Wahlala isikhathi eside ngokwanele ukwenza isiqiniseko sokuthi inethiwekhi ngeke ife isaqala. Wabe esenyamalala.

Okungase kubukeke njengento yokungaziwa engavamile, kuyinto ebalulekile kakhulu kuhlelo olusajhalalisiwe ngempela. Akukho ukulawulwa okungaphakathi. Alikho igunya elimaphakathi. Akekho umsunguli. Akunamuntu ozoshushisa, ahlukunyezwe, agwebe, noma phanga. Umbono omsulwa wobuchwepheshe.

"Enye yezinto ezinkulu kakhulu eyenzwe nguSatoshi ukuyanyamalala." - U-Jimmy Songopen in new window

Selokhu kwazalwa i-Bitcoin, izinkulungwane zezimali zedijithali ezinye zazalwa. Awekho kulawa ma-clone awabelana ngemvelaphi yawo. Uma ufuna isikhundla se-Bitcoin, kuzodingeka weqe indaba yemvelaphi yayo. Empini yemibono, ukulandisa kunquma ukusinda.

"Igolide laqala ukwenziwa laba ubucwebe bese lasetshenziselwa ukuhwebelana okungaphezu kweminyaka engu-7,000 edlule. Ukukhanya okukhangayo kwegolide kwaholela ekubeni libhekwe njengesipho esibuya konkulunkulu." - Igolide: Insimbi Engavamileopen in new window

Njengegolide ezikhathini zasendulo, i-Bitcoin ingase ibhekwe njengesipho esivela konkulunkulu. Ngokungafani negolide, imvelaphi yama-Bitcoin ngeyabantu kakhulu. Futhi manje, siyazi ukuthi obani onkulunkulu bentuthuko nesondlo: abantu emhlabeni wonke, engaziwa noma cha.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ukulandisa kubalulekile.


Isifundo 6: Amandla wenkululeko yokukhuluma


"Ngicela uxolo?" kusho igundane, lishwabene, kodwa ngesizotha, "ukhulumile?"
"

I-Bitcoin ingumbono. Umbono lapho, ngendlela yawo manje, obonakaliswa ngumshini onikwe amandla ngumbhalo kuphela. Zonke izici ze-Bitcoin zingumbhalo: I-whitepaper ingumbhalo. Isofthiwe eqhutshwa amanodi awo ingumbhalo. Ileja iwumbhalo. Okwenziwayo kungumbhalo. Okhiye basesidlangalaleni kanye nabangasese bawumbhalo. Zonke izici ze-Bitcoin ziwumbhalo, futhi kanjalo zilingana nenkulumo.

"Inhlagano ngeke yenze umthetho ophathelene nokusungulwa kwenkolo, noma ukwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kwayo ngokukhululekile; noma ukuncisha inkululeko yenkulumo, noma yezindaba; noma ilungelo labantu lokuhlangana ngokuthula, nokunxusa uHulumeni ukuba alungise izikhalo." - Isichibiyelo Sokuqala Somthethosisekelo Wase-United Statesopen in new window"

Nakuba impi yokugcina ye- Zimpi Zemali yedijthaliopen in new window ingakalwiwa, kuzoba nzima kakhulu ukwenza umqondo othile ube yicala, ingasaphathwa eyokuthi umbono osekelwe ekushintshaneni kwemiyalezo yombhalo. Ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho uhulumeni ezama ukwenqabela umbhalo noma inkulumo, siya endleleni engenangqondo eholela ezintweni ezinengekayo ezifana ne- izinombolo ezingekho emthethweniopen in new window kanye neziqalo ezingekho emthethweniopen in new window.

“Inqobo nje uma kukhona ingxenye yomhlaba lapho inkulumo imahala njenge inkululeko, i-Bitcoin ayinakuvinjwa."

"Kunoma ngikuphi ukuthengiselana kwe-Bitcoin akukho ndawo lapho i-Bitcoin eyeka ukuba umbhalo. Kungumbhalo konke umbhalo, ngaso sonke isikhathi. [...]

I-Bitcoin ingumbhalo. I-Bitcoin iyinkulumo. Ayinakulawulwa ezweni elinenkululeko njenge-USA elinamalungelo aqinisekisiwe angenakugwenywa kanye neSichibiyelo Sokuqala esingafaki > ngokusobala isenzo sokushicilela ukwengamela kukahulumeni." - Beautyonopen in new window

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi emphakathini onenkululeko, inkulumo ekhululekile kanye nesofthiwe yamahhala azinakuvinjwa.


Isifundo 7: Imikhawulo yolwazi


Phansi, phansi, phansi. Ingabe ukuwa bekungeke kuphele?
"

Ukungena ku-Bitcoin kuyinto ethobisayo. Ngangicabanga ukuthi ngazi izinto. Ngangicabanga ukuthi ngifundile. Bengicabanga ukuthi ngiyayazi ikhompuyutha yami yesayensi, okungenani. Ngiyifunde iminyaka, ngakho kufanele ngazi yonke into emayelana namasiginesha edijithali, amahashi, ukubethela, ukusebenza ezokuphepha, namanethiwekhi, akunjalo?

Uyaphosisa.

Ukufunda zonke izinto eziyisisekelo esenza i-Bitcoin isebenze kunzima. Ukuziqonda zonke ngokujulile akunakwenzeka.

"Akekho ohambe waze wafika lapho kuphelela khona uhambo lweBitcoin".- U-Jameson Loppopen in new window

“Uhlu lwami lwezincwadi okufanele ngizifunde lulokhu lukhula ngokushesha engeke ngikwazi ukuzifunda. Uhlu lwamaphepha nezindatshana okufanele zifundwe cishe lungapheli. Kunamaphodikasti amaningi ngazo zonke lezi zihloko engeke ngakwazi ukuzilalela. Kuyathobisa ngempela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-Bitcoin iyashintsha kanti futhi cishe kubenzima ukuhlala usezintweni ngezinga elisheshayo lokuqamba izinto ezintsha. Uthuli lwesendlalelo sokuqala alukakahlali ngisho namanje, futhi abantu sebevele bakha ungqimba wesibili futhi basebenza kowesithathu.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ngazi okuncane cishe ngayo yonkinto. Ingifundise ukuthi lomgodi onogwaja awupheleli.

Isahluko II: Ezomnotho

Imali ayikhuli ezihlahleni. Ukukholelwa ukuthi ikhula ezihlahleni kuwubuwula, futhi abazali bethu benza isiqiniseko sokuthi siyakwazi lokho ngokuphindaphinda lesi sisho. Sikhuthazwa ukuyihlenga ngezikhathi ezinhle ukuze isisize kokubi. Imali phela ayikhuli ezihlahleni.

I-Bitcoin yangifundisa okuningi ngemali kunalokho engangicabanga ukuthi ngizodinga ukwazi. Ngayo, ngaphoqeleka ukuba ngihlole umlando wemali, amabhange, izikole ezihlukahlukene zokucabanga kwezomnotho, nezinye izinto eziningi. Ukufuna ukuqonda i-Bitcoin kungiholele phansi ngobuningi bezindlela, ezinye zazo engizama ukuzihlola kulolu chungechunge.

Ezifundweni eziyisikhombisa zokuqala eminye yemibuzo yefilosofi ethintwa yiBitcoin kwaxoxwa ngayo. Izifundo eziyisikhombisa ezilandelayo zizohlolisisa imali nezomnotho.

Futhi, ngizokwazi kuphela ukunwaya phezulu. I-Bitcoin ayigcini nje isifiso sokuvelela, kodwa futhi esibanzi futhi esijulile ngobubanzi, okwenza kube nzima ukuhlanganisa zonke izihloko ezifanele esifundweni esisodwa, i-eseyi, i-athikili, noma incwadi. Ngiyangabaza ukuthi kungenzeka yini.

I-Bitcoin iwuhlobo olusha lwemali, okwenza ukufunda ngezomnotho kubaluleke kakhulu ekuyiqondeni. Ukubhekana nesimo sesenzo somuntu kanye nokusebenzelana kwama-ejenti wezomnotho, ezomnotho cishe zingenye yezingcezu ezinkulu nezingacacile zephazili ye-Bitcoin.

Futhi, lezi zifundo ziwukuhlola izinto ezihlukahlukene engizifunde ku-Bitcoin. Ziwumfanekiso womuntu siqu wohambo lwami oluhehayo. Njengoba ngingenaso isizinda sezomnotho, nakanjani ngiphumile endaweni yami yokunethezeka futhi ikakhulukazi ukwazi ukuthi noma yikuphi ukuqonda engingase nginakho akuphelele. Ngizokwenza konke okusemandleni ami ukuveza engikufundile, ngisho noma ngisengozini yokuzenza isilima. Phela, ngisazama ukuphendula lo mbuzo: “Yini oyifundile ku-Bitcoin?”open in new window

Ngemva kwezifundo eziyisikhombisa ezihloliwe kusetshenziswa ilensi yefilosofi, masisebenzise i-lensi yezomnotho ukuze sibheke ezinye eziyisikhombisa. Isigaba somnotho yiso kuphela engingasinikeza ngalesi sikhathi. Indawo yokugcina: imali enzinzile.


Isifundo 8: Ukungazi lutho ngezezimali


Futhi uzocabanga ukuthi ngiyintombazanyana engazi lutho uma ngibuza! Cha, akusoze kwakwenza ukubuza: mhlawumbe ngizokubona kubhalwe ndawana thize.

Enye yezinto ezimangaza kakhulu, kimina, kwakuwumthamo wezimali, ezomnotho, kanye nokusebenza kwengqondo okudingekayo ukuze uqonde lokho okubonakala kuwuhlelo lobuchwepheshe kuphela --- inethiwekhi yamakhompiyutha. Umfana omncane onezinyawo ezinoboya: "Kuyibhizinisi eliyingozi, Frodo, ukungena ku-Bitcoin. Ufunda i-whitepaper, futhi uma ungagcini izinyawo zakho, awazi ukuthi ungashanela kuphi."

Ukuze uqonde uhlelo olusha lwezimali, kufanele ujwayelane nesidala. Ngaqala ukuqaphela ngokushesha ukuthi inani lemfundo yezezimali engangiyijabulela ohlelweni lwezemfundo empeleni lalingu-ziro.

Njengomntwana oneminyaka emihlanu ubudala, ngaqala ukuzibuza imibuzo eminingi: Isistimu yebhange isebenza kanjani? Imakethe yamasheya isebenza kanjani? Iyini imali ye-fiat? Iyini imali * evamile *? Kungani kukhona kanjalo isikweletu esiningiopen in new window? Yimalini empeleni imali iphrintiwe, futhi ngubani onquma lokho?

Ngemuva kokwethuka okuncane mayelana nokungazi kwami, ngathola isiqinisekiso ngokuqaphela ukuthi ngangiphakathi kwabantu abalungile.

" Akuyona yini indida ukuthi i-Bitcoin ingifundise okuningi ngemali kunabo bonke kule minyaka ngiyichithe ngisebenzela izikhungo zezimali? ...kuhlanganise nokuqala umsebenzi wami ebhange elikhulu" - aarontayccopen in new window

"Ngifunde okwengeziwe ngezezimali, ezomnotho, ezobuchwepheshe, i-cryptography, i-sayikholoji yabantu, ezombusazwe, ithiyori yomdlalo, umthetho, kanye nami ezinyangeni ezintathu zokugcina ze-crypto kuneminyaka emithathu nengxenye yokugcina yasekolishi"  - bitcoindunnyopen in new window

Lezi ngezimbili nje kwezinengi zokuvumaopen in new window kuyo yonke i-Twitter. i-Bitcoin, njengoba kwakunjalo kuhlolisiswe ku- Isifundo 1, kuyinto ephilayo.U-Mises waphikisa ngokuthi ezomnotho nazo ziyinto ephilayo.Futhi njengoba sonke sazi ngokuhlangenwe nakho komuntu siqu, izinto eziphilayo zinzima ngokwemvelo ukuziqonda. .

"Isistimu yesayensi yisiteshi esisodwa esiqhubeka ngokungapheli sesha ulwazi. Kuyathinteka ngempela ukuntula ezitholakala kuyo yonke imizamo yomuntu. Kodwa ukuvuma la maqiniso kuyakwenza akusho ukuthi umnotho wanamuhla usemuva. Kusho nje ukuthi umnotho uyinto ephilayo --- futhi ukuphila kusho kokubili ukungapheleli noshintsho." - Ludwig von Misesopen in new window

Sonke sifunda ngezingqinamba ezehlukene zezimali ezindabeni, sizibuza ukuthi zisebenza kanjani lezi zikhulu ezinkulu zokutakulwa nokuxakeka ukuthi akekho umuntu oke aphendule ngamademeshe ezigidigidi. Namanje ngisaxakekile kodwa okungenani sengiqala ukubona kancane ukuthi kwenzekani emhlabeni wezezimali.

Abanye abantu baze bafinyelele ekutheni ukungazi okuvamile ngalezi zihloko kubangelwa ukungazi kwesistimu, kwamabomu. Nakuba umlando, i-physics, ibhayoloji, izibalo, nezilimi konke kuyingxenye yemfundo yethu, umhlaba wemali nezezimali ngokumangazayo uhlolisiswa ngokukha phezulu, uma konke. Ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe abantu basazimisele yini ukuqongelela izikweletu ezingaka njengoba benza njengamanje ukube wonke umuntu uzofundiswa ngezimali zakhe kanye nokusebenza kwemali nezikweletu. Bese ngiyazibuza ukuthi zingaki izingqimba ze-aluminiyamu ezenza isigqoko se-tinfoil esisebenzayo. Mhlawumbe ezintathu.

"Lezo ngozi, lezi zindlela zokutakulwa, akuzona izingozi. Futhi akunjalo ingozi yokuthi ayikho imfundo yezezimali esikoleni. [...] Kuhleliwe. Njengoba nje ngaphambi kweMpi Yombango kwakungekho emthethweni ukufundisa isigqila, asivunyelwe ukufunda ngemali esikoleni." - Robert Kiyosakiopen in new window

Njengaku-The Wizard of Oz, sitshelwa ukuthi singayinaki indoda engemuva kwekhethini. Ngokungafani naku-The Wizard of Oz, manje sesine-[realwizardry](https://external-preview.redd.it/8d03MWWOf2HIyKrT8ThBGO4WFv- u25JaYqhbEO9b1Sk.jpg?width=683&auto=webp&s=dc5922d84717c6a94527bafc0189fd4ca02a24bb): nethiwekhi yokuvimbela ukucwaninga, evulekile, engenamngcele wokudlulisa inani. Alikho ikhethini, futhi umbhilo ubonakala kunoma ubaniopen in new window.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ngibheke ngemuva kwekhethini futhi ngibhekane nokungazi kwami ngezezimali.


Isifundo 9: I-infuleyisheni


Sithandwa sami, lapha kufanele sigijime ngokushesha okukhulu, ukuze sihlale endaweni. Futhi uma ufisa ukuya noma yikuphi kufanele ugijime ngokuphindwe kabili kunalokho.

Ukuzama ukuqonda ukwehla kwamandla emali, kanye nesistimu engehli amandla efana ne-Bitcoin ingase iguqule indlela esenza ngayo izinto, kwakuyisiqalo sebhizinisi lami kwezomnotho. Ngangazi ukuthi ukwehla kwamandla emali kwakuyizinga okwakhiwa ngalo imali entsha, kodwa ngangingazi okuningi ngale kwalokho.

Nakuba ezinye izazi zezomnotho ziphikisana ngokuthi ukwehla kwamandla emali kuyinto enhle, abanye baphikisa ngokuthi imali "ezinzile" engakwazi ukukhuphuka kalula --- njengoba kwakunjalo ezinsukwini zezinga legolide ---- ibalulekile emnothweni onempilo. . I-Bitcoin, enenani elilinganiselwe lezigidi ezingu-21, ivumelana nekamu yakamuva.

Ngokuvamile, imiphumela yokwehla kwamandla emali ayibonakali ngokushesha. Ngokuya ngezinga lokwehla kwamandla emali (kanye nezinye izici) isikhathi phakathi kwembangela nomphumela singaba iminyaka eminingana. Akukhona lokho kuphela, kodwa ukwehla kwamandla emali kuthinta amaqembu ahlukene abantu ngaphezu kwabanye. Njengoba uHenry Hazlitt ephawula ku- Economics in One Lesson: "Ubuciko bezomnotho bubandakanya ukubheka hhayi nje kuphela okwenzeka ngaleso sikhathi kodwa imiphumela ende yanoma yisiphi isenzo noma inqubomgomo; kuhlanganisa ukulandelela imiphumela yaleyo nqubomgomo hhayi nje iqembu elilodwa kodwa wonke amaqembu."

Esinye sezikhathi zami zokuqaphela kwaba ukuqaphela ukuthi ukukhipha uhlobo lwemali olusha --- ukuphrinta imali eningi --- kuwumsebenzi wezomnotho ohluke ngokuphelele kuyo yonke eminye imisebenzi yezomnotho. Nakuba izimpahla zangempela nezinsizakalo zangempela kukhiqiza inani langempela kubantu bangempela , ukuphrintha imali ngempumelelo kwenza okuphambene: kususa inani kuwo wonke umuntu ophethe uhlobo lwemali elinenani elehlayo.

"Ukwehla kwamandla emali nje --- okungukuthi, ukukhishwa nje kwemali eyengeziwe, umphumela wamaholo aphezulu nezintengo --- kungase kubukeke njengokudalwa kokufunwa okwengeziwe. Kodwa mayelana nokukhiqizwa kwangempela kanye nokuhwebelana kwezinto zangempela akunjalo." - Henry Hazlittopen in new window

Amandla abhubhisayo okwehla kwamandla emali aba sobala ngokushesha nje lapho ukwehla kwamandla emali kancane kuba okuningi. Uma inani lemali lehla kakhulu hyperinflatesopen in new window, izinto ziba zimbi ngokushesha ngempela. Njengoba imali ekhuphukayo iwa, izohluleka ukugcina ukubaluleka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi futhi abantu bazojaha ukubamba kunoma yiziphi izimpahla ezingagqina ukubaluleka.

Omunye umphumela we-infuleyisheni ukuthi yonke imali abantu abayilondolozile phakathi nokuphila kwabo izoshabalala ngokuphumelelayo. Imali yephepha esikhwameni sakho izobe isekhona, kunjalo. Kodwa kuyoba yilokho kanye: iphepha elingenalutho.

I-infuleyisheni e-Weimar Republic (1921-1923)

Imali yehla ngenani nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-infuleyisheni "ethambile". Kwenzeka kancane ngokwanele kangangokuthi abantu abaningi ababoni ukuncipha kwamandla abo okuthenga. Futhi lapho imishini yokuphrintha isisebenza, inani lemali lingehla kalula, futhi lokho kwehla kwenani lemali okuncane kungase kuphenduke yi-infuleyisheni enkulu. Njengoba uFriedrich Hayek abonisa kwenye yezindaba zakhe, ukwehla kwamandla emali okuncane ngokuvamile kuholela ekwehleni kwamanani emali ngokuqondile.

"Ukwehla kwamandla emali okuzinzile okuncani akukwazi ukusiza --- kungaholela ekuqondeni ngqo kokwehla kwamandla emali." - [Friedrich Hayek](https://books.google.com/books?id=zZu3AAAAIAAJ&dq=%22only+ while+it+accelerates%22&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=%22steady+inflation+cannot+help%22)

Ukwehla kwamandla emali kunenkohliso ikakhulukazi njengoba kuthanda labo abaseduze nemishini yokunyathelisa. Kuthatha isikhathi ukuthi imali esanda kwakhiwa ijikeleze futhi izintengo zilungiswe, ngakho-ke uma ukwazi ukuthola izandla zakho imali ethe xaxa ngaphambi kokuthi wonke umuntu ehlise inani ungaphambi kwejika lokukhuphuka kwamandla emali. Yingakho futhi ukwehla kwamandla emali kungase kubonakale njengentela efihliwe ngoba ekugcineni ohulumeni bayazuza ngayo kuyilapho bonke abanye igcina ngokukhokha inani.

“Angicabangi ukuthi kuyihaba ukusho ukuthi umlando ubaluleke kakhulu umlando wokwehla kwamandla emali, futhi ngokuvamile nokwenyuka kwamandla emali okwakhiwa ngu ohulumeni ukuze kuzuze ohulumeni." [Friedrich Hayek](https://books.google.com/books?id=l_A1vVIaYBYC&pg=PA142&dq=%22history+largely+a+history+of+inflation%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEfx6ApHVDlKRd#ApKR6ApKXAUKEwifx6ApKRd =ikhasi elilodwa&q=%22history%20is%20kakhulu%20a%20history%20of%20inflation%22&f=false)

Kuze kube manje, zonke izimali ezilawulwa uhulumeni zigcine zikhona ezishintshiwe noma zigoqeke ngokuphelele. Noma ngabe lincane kangakanani izinga ukwehla kwamandla emali, ukukhula "okuzinzile" kungenye nje indlela yokusho i-exponential ukukhula. Emvelweni njengakwezomnotho, zonke izinhlelo ezikhula kakhulu ekugcineni kuyodingeka ukuthi yehle noma ibhekane nokuwa okuyinhlekelele.

"Ngeke kwenzeke ezweni lami," yilokho okungenzeka ukuthi ucabanga. Wena ungacabangi ukuthi uma ungowaseVenezuela, okwamanje ukuhluphekaopen in new window ngenxa yokwehla kwamandla emali. Ngezinga lokwehla kwamandla emali elingaphezu kwesigidi esi-1 amaphesenti, imali ngokuyisisekelo iyize.

Kungenzeka kungenzeki eminyakeni embalwa ezayo, noma ikakhulukazi imali esetshenziswa ezweni lakini. Kodwa ukubheka uhlu lomlando izimaliopen in new window ibonisa ukuthi nakanjani kuzokwenzeka esikhathini eside esanele isikhathi. Ngikhumbula futhi ngasebenzisa inala yalabo abasohlwini: abase-Austrian i-schilling, uphawu lwesiJalimane, i-lira yase-Italy, i-franc yesiFulentshi, i- Irish pound, Croatian dinar, njll. Ugogo wami waze wasebenzisa I-Austro-Hungarian Krone. Njengoba isikhathi siqhubeka, izinhlobo zemali okwamanje zingenile sebenzisaopen in new window bazohamba kancane kodwa ngokuqinisekile baye emathuneni abo. Bona izofaka i-hyperinflate noma ishintshwe. Ngokushesha zizoba umlando izimali. Sizowenza aphelelwe yisikhathi.

"Umlando ukhombisile ukuthi ohulumeni bazozinikezela nakanjani isilingo sokukhulisa imali." - Saifedean Ammousopen in new window

Kungani i-Bitcoin ihlukile? Ngokungafani nezinhlobo zemali ezigunyazwe uhulumeni, izimpahla zemali ezingalawulwa ohulumeni, kodwa ngemithetho ye i-physicsopen in new window, ijwayele ukuphila futhi ibambe inani layo isikhathi. Isibonelo esihle kakhulu salokhu kuze kube manje igolide, okuyinto, njengoba ebizwa ngokufanele Gold-to-Decent-Suit Ratioopen in new window imibukiso, ibambe iqhaza layo inani elingaphezu kwamakhulu nangaphezulu izinkulungwane zeminyaka. Ingase "ingazinzi" ngokuphelele --- ibe nokungabazekayo umqondo kwasekuqaleni --- kodwa inani eliphethe okungenani lizoba ku- ukuhleleka okufanayo kobukhulu.

Uma inzuzo yemali noma uhlobo lwemali ibamba inani layo kahle ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nendawo, kuthathwa ngokuthi kunzima. Uma ingakwazi ukulibamba inani layo, ngoba yona iwohloka kalula noma inyuke, ithathwa njengohlobo lwemali ethambile. I umqondo wobulukhuni kubalulekile ukuqonda Bitcoin futhi uyakufanelekela ukuhlolwa okuphelele. Sizobuyela kuwo emnothweni wokugcina isifundo: imali ezwakalayo.

Njengoba amazwe amaningi ehlushwa hyperinflationopen in new window, abantu abaningi ngokwengeziwe kuzodingeka babhekane neqiniso lokuqina nokuthambile imali. Uma sinenhlanhla, mhlawumbe nabanye osomabhizinisi bamabhange bazophoqeleka ukuhlola kabusha izinqubomgomo zabo zezimali. Noma yini engenzeka, the Ukuqonda engikuzuze ngenxa ye-Bitcoin cishe kuzoba wusizo olukhulu, cha kunendaba umphumela.

I-Bitcoin yangifundisa ngentela efihliwe yokwehla kwamandla emali kanye nenhlekelele ye-infuleyisheni esezingeni eliphezulu (hyperinflation).


Isifundo 10: Inani


Kwakungunogwaja omhlophe, ehamba kancane ebuyela emuva, futhi ebuka ngokukhathazeka njengoba ehamba, njengokungathi ulahlekelwe okuthile...

Inani liyindida ngandlela-thile, futhi kukhona imibono eminingiopen in new window ezama ukuchaza ukuthi kungani sazisa izinto ezithile ngaphezu kwezinye izinto. Abantu sekuyizinkulungwane zeminyaka beqaphela lendida. Njengoba uPlato wabhala engxoxweni yakhe no-Euthydemus, sazisa ezinye izinto ngoba azivamile, futhi hhayi nje ngokusekelwe isidingo sazo ukuze siphile.

"Futhi uma uhlakaniphile uzonikeza iseluleko esifanayo kubafundi bakho futhi --- ukuthi bangalokothi baxoxe nanoma ubani ngaphandle kwakho. Ngoba kuyivelakancane, Euthydemus, eyigugu, kuyilapho amanzi ashibhe kunawo wonke, nakuba angcono kakhulu, njengoba kwasho u-Pindar." - Platoopen in new window

Lokhu indida yenaniopen in new window ibonisa okuthile okuthakazelisayo ngathi bantu: thina kubonakala zazisa izinto ngesisekelo subjectiveopen in new window, kodwa kwenze lokho ngokuqiniseka imibandela engakhethi. Okuthile kungase kube yigugu ngezizathu ezihlukahlukene, kodwa izinto esizazisayo zihlanganyela ezinye izici. Uma singakopisha okuthile kalula, noma uma kunjalo kuningi ngokwemvelo, asikwazisi.

Kubonakala sengathi sazisa okuthile ngoba kuyindlala (igolide, idayimane, isikhathi), okunzima noma okunzima ukukhiqiza, akukwazi ukushintshwa ( isithombe esidala sothandekayo), siwusizo ngendlela esenza ngayo senze izinto ebesingeke sikwazi, noma inhlanganisela yalezo, njengemisebenzi emihle yobuciko.

I-Bitcoin iyikho konke lokhu okungenhla: inqabile kakhulu (izigidi ezingama-21), kunzima ukuyikhiqiza (ukwehliswa komvuzo), ayishintshwa ( ukhiye oyimfihlo olahlekile ulahleka unomphela), futhi isenza sikwazi ukwenza okuthile izinto eziwusizo. Ngokungangabazeki iyithuluzi elingcono kakhulu lokudlulisa inani ngaphesheya kwemingcele, imelana neze nokuhlolwa nokuthathwa endaweni kwinqubo, futhi, iyisitolo esizimele senani, esivumela abantu ukuthi bagcine ingcebo yabo ngaphandle kwamabhange nohulumeni, ukubala ezimbili nje.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi inani liya ngomuntu.


Isifundo 11: Imali


"ebusheni bami,"kusho isihlakaniphi esho egexezisa amalokhi akhe ampunga,
"nga ngihlezi ngilolonga izitho zami ukuze zihlezi zikhuthele,
Ngisebenzisa nanka amafutha, okungamasheleni amahlanu ibhokisi elilodwa-
Ngivumele ngikudaisele ambalwa. "
"

Iyini yona imali? Isetshenziswa mihla namalanga, kodwa lombuzo uyashaqisa awuphenduleki kalula. Sithembele kuyona ngezindlela eziningi futhi uma ingekho imali impilo iye ithande ukuba nzima. Kanti-ke asinaki kakhulu lento ajikelezisa umhlaba. U-Bitcoin wangiphoqa ukuthi ngiziphendulele wona lombuzo ngoku kuphindaphindiwe ngokuthi: kahle kahle iyini yona imali?

Emhlabeni esiphila kuwo namuhla, abantu bacabanga ukuthi imali amapheshana nje, kanti-ke imali izinombolo ezisemabhange ethu lapho kugcinwa khona imali. Sisebenzisa amanani nje ngemali yethu, ke manje u-Bitcoin wehluke kanjani? U-Bitcoin awufani nemali esiyaziyo ngoba ekujuleni kwayo, yehluke kakhulu. Ukuqondisisa lokhu, kumele sibukisise ukuthi iyini imali , yasungulwa kanjani, futhi kungani igolide no-siliva zazisetshenziswa emandulo ngezohwebo.

"Singasho ukuthi imali iyinsimbi eyigugu ejwayelekile, kunokuthi ubuhlinzeki buguqula isigqi semali ngokufana, kanti ukuhlinzeka kuya ngokuthi isigqi silinganiselwe kangakanani." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Amagobolondo asolwandle, igolide, isiliva iphepha,u-bitcoin, Singaphetha ngokuthi imali yilokho abantu abafuna ukukwenza ngayo, kungabalisekanga umumo, uhlobo noma ukuntuleka kwayo.

Ukusungulwa kwemali ubuhlakali obu isimanga. Kwakuyoba umhlaba olukhuni kabi ukube yayingekho imali: izinhlanzi ezingaki ezingangi thengela izicathulo? Izinkomo ezingaki ezinga ngakhela indlu? Kazi kwakuyokwenzakalani uma ngabe ngonakelelwe ama-apula okumele ngiwa lahle? Akudingi ukuthi udle amathambo engqondo ukuhlaziya ukuthi ukuhwebelana ngokwenanelana akunamvuzo.

Okuthokozisa kakhulu ngemali ukuthi ungakwazi ukushintshaniselana ngayo uthole noma ini--- icebo eliyisimanga! Njengoba wayeshilo u-Nick Szaboopen in new window*, thina bantu sisebenzisa izinto eziningi ebangeni lemali, nje ngobuhlali obwenziwe ngohlobo lwempahla engajwayelekile okufana no phondo lwendlovu, amagobolondo, noma amathambo angajwayelekile, nolunye uhlobo lobucwebe, ekuhambeni kwesikhathi kwase kusetshenziswa nezinsimbi azingavamile nje nge golide no-siliva.

Njengoba sizidalwa ezivilaphayo, asicabangi kakhulu ngezinto ezingasisebenzela. Kithina sonke, imali isenzela yonke into. Izimoto zethu noma ama-khomphuyutha, iningi lethu sivame ukunaka lokhu uma isikhathi sesingasekho. Abantu abake baphelelwa imali abayigcina ngenxa yokwehla kwamandla emali,bahlonipha ukubaluleka kwemali eligugu, kufaniswa nabantu abalahlekelwa izihlobo nemindeni yabo ngenxa yonya oludalwe ngama-Nazi aseJalimane noma ama-Soviet ase-Russia, bayakwazi ukubaluleka kwe mfihlo.

Kuyaziwa ukuthi imali ihlanganisa konke. Imali iyi ngxenye ya ntengo zonke, lokhu kuchaza ukuthi bonke abaphethe iitambo ekukhandweni kwemali bagunyazwe ngamandla adlulele.

"Nje ngoba imali iyingxenye yazonke iintengo, ingakho impucuko yonke idlule ezinguqukweni eziphindaphindiwe kodwa lokho kuya ngokuthi izinga lemali limi kanjani ezweni, sikhuluma ngamandla anga sukumi phansi. Kukhulunywa ngamandla adala imilingo engakaze yabonwa. Lawo mandla adlula onke akhona asiwaziyo" - Ron Paulopen in new window

u-Bitcoin udambisa lamandla ngokuzothile, ngoku guqula imvama yokudala imali ngaphandle kokusebenzisa indluzula.

Imali isuka ezinguqukweni eziningi. Ezinye zezinguquka ziyancomeka. Zaphuculula imali yetho ngezindlela ezithile. Mva nje, ohlelweni lwezimali kwaba khona nobuqili obuthile obuye baphazamisa. Esitkhathini samanje imali yethu ikhandwe emoyeni ngamandla thizeni angaziwa. Ukuqondisisa lokhu, kwakumele ngifunde kabanzi ngomlando kanye nokuwa kwemali ngokulandelana.

Kuyogcina ngokuthi kube nezihibe ezedlulele noma imizamo ehloliwe ukuze kuqondiswe inkohlakalo, okungaziwa ukuthi kuyokwenzeka nini na. Ngiyakhuleka, konkulunkulu bezimali ukuthi inqotshwe inkohlakalo.

u-Bitcoin iwona owangicacisela ukuthi iyini imali kahle-hle.


Isifundo 12: Umlando nokuwa kwemali


Asoze bakhumbula imithetho elula abayinikwa abangani babo, nje ngokuthi uma ngabe udlala ngomlilo, uzosha, futhi uma udlala ngombese uyozisika umonwe wophe, akaze wakukhohlwa lokhu, ukuthi uma uphuzela ebhodleleni eluno phawu \"lobungozi,\" kuyenzeka ukuthi ngiphikisane nawe, ngokushesha noma kamuva.

Iningi labantu lizitshela ukuthi imali isekelwe igolide, nokuthi igcinwe endaweni eyimfihlo, lapho ivalelwe ngezindonga ezicijile. Lokhu kwaphela ukuba iqiniso eminyakeni eyishumi edlule. Angiqondisisi lokhu ebengiku cabanga, ilokhu ngaba enkingeni ejulile, ngenxa yokungabi nalo ulwazi olugcwele nge golide, imali yephepha nanokuthi kungani kwakumele kugqekezwe ngokuthile kwasekuqaleni.

Ingxenye enye yokufunda ngo-Bitcoin ukufunda nge-Fiat Money: Isho ukuthini, futhi kungani kungenzeka kungabi icebo elihle. Ngakho ke, iyini le-fiat money? Futhi kufike kanjani lapho isisetshenziswa khona?

Uma into ikhiqizwe nge fiat, isuke iphakanyiswe ngokomthetho ohloliwe. Ngakho ke, i-fiat money imali ngenxa yokuthi ukhona owaybiza ngemali. Nje ngoba ohulumeni besebenzisa yona le-fiat money namhlanje, loyo muntu uhulumeni wenu. Ngeshwa ke, anikatholi inkululeko yokuphikisa isiphakamiso salesi sigqi semali ye-fiat. Uyoshesha ukuzwa ukuthi lesi siphakamiso siyi konke kodwa asinalo udlame. Uma wenqaba ukusebenzisa lemali yephapha ukuhwebelana nokukhokha intela, abantu ongakwazi ukuxoxisana nabo ngezomnotho ilabo oyobe uvalelwe nabo ejele.

Isigqi semali yephepha, asiqhamuki emlandweni wokwakheka kwemali.Ukubaluleka kwemali kanye nokusetshenziswa kwayo kuqhamuka kwezo politiki lapho kuhlelwa khona isimo semali nokuthi iyokwakheka kanjani. Ukubaluleka kwemali kubekiswe ngemiyalo kanye noku bekwa komthetho.

fi·at /ˈfēˌät,ˈfēət/ --- 'Let it be done'

Kungasikudala nje, iinhlobo zokusetshenziswa kwemali zazimbili kuphela: imali yempahlaekhandwe ngezinto eziyigugu , futhi nemali yobummeleli* emele into eyigugu, ikakhulukazi okwabhalwa ngayo.

Sesike sa thinta ngemali yempahla ngenhla. Abantubebesebenzisa amathambo ekhethelo, amagobolondo asolwandle kanye nensimbi ezithandwa kakhulu nje ngemali. Ekuhambeni kwesikhathi, igolide nosiliva kwaba iinsimbi eziyigugu kwasetshenziswa okwe mali. I -khoini yakuqala open in new window

Lydian electrum coin. Picture cc-by-sa Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Kubonakala sengathi ukuqongelelwa kwama khoini, noku bambelela kuwo ukuze kusetshenziswa izindlela zesi manje manje, kuyazifanela neinkathi zakudala. Umuntu wakudala owaziwayo owayethanda ukuqongelela amakhoini , yilowo owa qoqa amakhoini angamakhulu ebhodweni walingcwaba ngaphansi kwe sonto, lelo bhodlela lama khoini latholakala sekudlule iminyaka engama-2500. Kwaba indlela enhle kabi yokulondoloza amakhoini, ngikutshele.

Okungase kudale izinkinga ezimbi ngoku sebenzisa lezinsimbi eziyigugu ukukhanda amakhoini ikuthi kungenzeka lamakhoini asikwe, lokhu kwenza kwehle izinga lamandla emali. Ama khoini amasha ayavuselelwa umangabe esikiwe, lokhu kudala ukuthi ukuhlinzekwa kwemali ekuhambeni kwesikhathi kwehlise izinga lamandla la onke amakhoini akhona. Kuye kwaya kwagcina sekuba ikuthi abantu be phucula ama dola wesiliva. Ngiyazibuza ukuba i Dollar Shave Club yayingumkhangisi onjani kudala.

Ilokhu oholumeni bejwayela ukuzenzela ekutheni behlise izinga lamandla emali ngokuthanda kwabo, imizamo yake yaba khona ukulwisana nale nkohlakalo.Ngendlela yokulingisa imikhuba yo hulumeni, abenza ubuqili bokusika amakhoini baphuculula amakhono abo, lokhu kwenza ukuthi abakhandi bama khoini 'abangompetha' ukuthi bathuthukise izindlela zabo zokwenza ukuze balwe nobugebengu bokusikwa kwamakhoini. u-Isaac Newton, oyisazi sesayensi yemvelo yodumo yakwa- Principia Mathematica ungumonye wompetha abaziwayo. Nguyena owafika nobuchule bokuthi kufakwe imigqa emincane emaceleni wamakhoini asekhona nanamhlanje. Sezaphela lezonsuku zakudala lapho kwaku lula khona ukuphucula amakhoyini.

Kanti nalendlela yokwenza yokwehliswa lwamandla wamakhoiniopen in new windowKwenza ukuthi kube nzima ukusebenzisa amakhoini, ngoba uma ethuthwa anesisindo esedlulele , ikakhulukazi uma ngabe kumele kuhanjiswe imali eningi. Uma uqhamuka nesikhwama esigcwele amakhoini kasiliva angama dola uma ufuna ukuthenga imoto kanokusho ka-Mercedes, asoze kwalunga lokho.

Ake sikhulume ngezinto zaseJalimane: Ukuthi idola laseMelika lathola kanjani igama lalo, indaba egculisayo leyo. Ibizo elithi dola lasuselwa egameni lesiJalimane elithi Thaleropen in new window, isinciphiso segama elithi Joachimsthaler. u-Joachimsthaler ikhoini elakhandwa edolobheni lase Sankt Joachimstal. Igama elithi-Thaler lichaza umuntu noma into eqhamuka esigodini esithile ngoba u-Joachimsthal kwaku isigodi lapho kukhiqizwa khona amakhoini, kwase abantu balapho beqamba leligama elithi Thaler (yaseJalimane) laguqulelwa kwi-daalders (yama-Dashi), kwagcina ngokuthi libizwe nge Dola (LamaNgisi)

"idola lakuqala". U-Saint Joachim osesithombeni ogqoke ingubo yakhe ende, kanye nesigqoko sakhe semilingo and. Picture cc-by-sa Berlin-George

Ukwethulwa kwemali yobummeleli, kudale ukuwa kwamandla emali yangempela. Izitifiketi zegolide zafika ngonyaka ongama-1863, sekudlule iminyaka eyishumi nanhlanu, idola lesiliva laseli fakwe esikhundleni semali yephepha: isitifiketi sesiliva.

Kwathatha iminyaka engama-50, selokhu kwa bikwa [nge-siliva] yakuqala (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_certificate_%28United_States%29) kwase kufika isikhathi lapho i-dola laseMelika elingamaphepha lingena emkhakheni wezezimali.

Idola lesiliva lango-1928 lase-U.S. 'Kukhokhwa kulowo owuphethe ngokufunwa.' Isithombe sekhredithi ye-National Numismatic Collection e-Smithsonian Institution

Qaphela ukuthi idola laseMelika lesiliva lonyaka ongama-1928, lisa qanjwe ngegama elithi isitifeketi sesiliva, lokhu kuchaza kalula ukuthi leli idokhumenti alichaza ukuthi umnikazi walo ukweletwa ucezu lika siliva. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lombhalo lo, owusekho uye wanyamalala ekuhambeni kwesikhathi. Lesi setifikethi, sanyamalala okwama zolo, kwase kufika izitatimende iezicacisayo ukuthi imlai yasebhange federal reserve notes

Njengoba sekulotshiwe ngenhla, sekuye kwenzakalela negolide. Umhlaba wonke wawo sebenzisa u-bimetallic standardopen in new window, Kusho ukuthi amakhoini ebekhandwe ngegolide nangosiliva kuphela.Ukuba nesetifiketi segolide, kukutholela amakhoini egolide, futhi lokhu kwaku impucuko yezobuchwepheshe. Ukusetshenziswa kwephepha kuyashesha futhi kungahlukaniswa ngokuthi kubhalwe inani elincane kulo, bese kubhalwe kulona inani elithile okungenzeka ukuthi lwephulewe kuma yunithi amancane.

Ukukhumbuza abasebenzisa lezitifiketi ukuthi zimele uqobo lwegolide nosiliva, umbala wazo wawu gqamile unjengoba kulotshiwe esitifiketini. Ubungakwazi ukuzifundela embhalweni kusukela phezulu ukuya phansi.

"Lokhu bekutshengisa ukuthi ikhona imali etshaliwe kumnyango wezezimali waseMelika, ikhulu lamadola elingakhokhelwa ngama khoini egolide kumnikazi wemali"

Picture credit to National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History.

Ngonyaka ongama-1963, amagama athi ""PAYABLE TO THE BEARER ON DEMAND"achaza ukuthi "ÏMALI ELOTSHIWE EBEKELWE UMNIKAZI" asuswa emalini etsha ekhiqiziwe. Eminyakeni emihlanu elandelayoukuvuselelwa kwe golide nosiliva kwaphela.

Amabizo okusikisela ngemvelaphi kanye nombono ngasemuva kwemali yephepha asulwa onke. Umbala wegolide wanyamalala. Kwasala iphepha kuphela lokho kwanikeza uhulumeni igunya lokukhiqizwa kwemali yephepha ngobuningi.

Emva kokuhoxiswa kwe zinga legolide ngo nyaka ongama-1971 ekhulwini leminyaka, kwenziwe ubuchule obuthile. Imali iphenduke inkohliso nanamhlanje: i-fiat money. Imali ibukeka sengathi ibalulekile ngoba kwasho induna yebuthi namajele. Njengoba kulotshiwe kuwo onke amadola anamuhla "LELINOTHI ITHENDA ELISEMTHETHWENI".Ngamanye amagama: Ibaluleke ngoba lelinothi lisho njalo.

Uchungechunge lwango-2004 lwamadola ase-U.S. amalitha angamashumi amabili asetshenziswa namuhla. 'LELI BHAYIBHELI LIYITHENDA YOMTHETHO'

Kukhona imfundo eyintshisekelo emalini yephapha yasebhange, akunakekile kodwa kusobala. Umugqa wesibili ubhale ukuthi ithenda elisemthetwheni "ZONKE IZIKWELETU ZOMPHAKATHI NEZANGASESE". Okungaba sobala kwizazi zomnotho kwangimangaza kakhulu: Yonke imali isikweletu. Ikhanda lami lisa nkenketha ngenxa yalokhu, futhi ngizokuyekelela ukuhlolisisa lokhu kuxhumana kwezimali nezikweletu nje ngesivivinyo kubafundi.

Njengoba sesibonile, igolide no siliva zazisetshenziswa iminyaka eminingi njengemali.Ekuhambeni kwesikhathi,imali yaphepha yase isetshenziswa esikhundleni sohlamvu lwemali enziwe nge golide nango siliva. Leliphepha, lase lijwayeleka nje ngendlela yokukhokha. Lokhu kwenza kube khona inkohliso --- lenkohliso yenziwa ukuthi leliphepha liyigugu. Ekugcineni, kwaku mele kube khona ukuqondisiswa kwento ekhona nale esingaiboni: wa qedwa umthetho noma umgomo wegolide kwase kukholiswa wonke umuntu ukuthi imali yephepha iyigugu.

u-Bitcoin wangifundisa ngomlando wemali kanye nobuchule obunoboqili emlandweni wezomnotho: imali ye-fiat.


Isifundo 13: Umsangano we-Fractional Reserve


Habe! Sesihambile isikhathi: kwa hamba hamba kwafika la esekhula khona, kwase kufika isikhathi lapho kumele aguqe ngamadolo: emzuzwini olandelwayo kwaphela ngisho indawo ya lokhu, wazama ukucambalala kancane, ebekise indololwane yakhe ngase scabheni, ethwele isandla esisodwa ekhanda. Kusenjalo nje waqhubeka elokhu ekhula, ekugcineni wabeka ingalo yakhe efasiteleni, nonyawo phezu kweshimula, wazitshela ukuthi "senginga dela konke- ngingaba ini kodwa?"

Isigqi kanye nemali, izihloko ezisematheni esikhathini sanamhlanje. Uhlelo lokukhandwa kwemali emabhange kuyazifanela nakho kubalulekile, angkwazi ukuthi ngikushaye indiva lokhu ngoba isenzo sangabomu. Engakufunda ezincwadini zesikole kanye neminye imibhalo yasemthethweni kubonakala kuyi senzo esijwayelekile emkhakheni wezezimali: Ayikho into echazwe kalula, kodwa hhayi ngoba kuyinto engaqondakalo, kodwa ngoba iqiniso lifihliwe ukuze kunganakeki kukhulunywa ngani. "Expansionary monetary policy, quantitative easing, fiscal stimulus to the economy." Abathameli bayalehlekiswa ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwamagama ahumishile, angaqondakali kahle emphakathini.

i-Fractional reserve banking kanye no-Quantitative easing, kungama gama amabili ahumushile , aphazamisayo ekutheni kube nzima ukuqondisisa uhlelo lwemali. Uma ungachazela ingane eneminyaka emihlanu, kuyobe kungumsangano odlulele.

u-Godfrey Bloom, waphaka inkulumo ePhalamende lase-Europe mhlazane kwakune nkulumo-mpikiswano ehlanganyelwe open in new window lokhu kwachazwa kangconywana kunami:

"[…] awuluqondisisi kahle uhlelo lwamabhange. Amabhange awanayo imali. U-Bank Santander, u-Deutsche Bank kanye no-Royal Bank of Scotland---awana lutho! Kwenziwa ini ukuthi lamabhange angabi nayo imali nah? Lesi akusona isenzo sikaNkulunkulu. Akuwona omonakalo odalwe izivunguvungu. Awana mali amabhange ngoba kunohlelo olubizwa ngo "fraction reserve banking' oluchaza ukuthi amabhange atshelekisa ngemali angeneyo! ubugebengu obuyihlazo bodwa lobo uba qhoba isikhathi eside kakhulu. [...]

Kunomgunyathi okhona--- kwesinye isikhathi uye ubizwe nje ngokuthi u-quantitative easing--- kodwa lo umgunyathi nje kwaphela. Uma ngabe ukunyatheliswa kwemali, bekwenziwa umuntukazana nje, ubeyo boshwa ahlale ejele isikhathi eside […] kuyoze kufike isikhathi lapho seisthumela abagcini zimali emajele--- ngibala nosopolitiki kanye nabaphathi bama bhange amahulu---bayophelela ejele lokhu kuthukuthela kuyoqhubeka." - [Godfrey Bloom]Inkulumo pinkiswano ehlanganyelweopen in new window

Ake ngiphinde ngikusho lokhu okubalulekile: amabhange atshelekisa ngemali angenayo.

Sibonge ngoba inhlelo yemali sisekelo yamabhange igcina nje inani eliphansi kwi dola elilodwa elitholwayo. Kulingeniselwa ku-0 kanye nama-10%, lokhu kwenzeka ikakhulukazi entengweni ephansi kakhulu, kanti lokhu kungadal umanakalo omkhulo kabi.

Ake sisebenzise isibonelo esilula ukuqondisisa lelicebo elingasile: Ingxenye ka-10% ingakwazi ukwenza iznto lula kuyomele sikwazi ukuzihlanganisela izibalo emiqondweni yethu. Unqobo lwangempela. Uma uthatha u-$100 ebhange---ngenxa yokungafuni uyuigcina ngaphansi komatilasi wakho---bayakwazi ukuthi bagcine imali yakho ngokuya ngesivumelwano sakho ingxenye yayo. Singasho ukuthi kungaba \u-$10, njengasesibonelweni sethu kungoba u-10% wekhiwa ngu$10. Akulula njalo?

Kwenzakalani ngenye imali ethathwa ngamabhange? Kwenzakalani ngo $90 wakho? Benza lokho okwenziwa ngamabhange, kutshelekiselwa abanye abantu. Imiphumela ebakhona imali ezaliswayoopen in new window engumphumela okhulisa ukuhlinzekwa kwemali emnothweni ngobuningi. Uma utshale imali elinganiselwa ku-$100 uyokwanda ube ngu-$190. Uma utshelekisa amaphesenti angama-90, ingxenye yayo iyokwanda ibe ngu-$217 emnothweni. Bese uphinde ukhule ube ngu-343.90. Ukuhlinzekwa kwemali kuye kukhule ngokuphindaphindiwe, lokhu kwenziwa ikuthi amabhange asuke etshelekisa ngemali angenayo. Ngaphandle kokuthi kusethshenziswe amasilamuzi, amabhanga aye anze imilngo yokuguqula.

Ungangizwa kabi: Alikho icala ekutshelekiseni. Alikho icala kwinzalo. Alukho olubi futhi olwenziwa amabhange akudala ajwayelekile ekugcineni umnotho ndawothizeni eyekhethelo kunase khabetheni lakho lokugcina amasokisi.

Amabhange amakhulu, angolunye uhlobo lwenkanyamba. Imithethonqubo ayilandelwa ngendlela kwezezimali, ingxenye eyomphakathi kanti enye ayabaphathi bangasese, lobu ubungozi abubandakanye onke umuntu osemhlabeni wamanje obungena nembeza, lesisenzo sibhekiswe ekusaseni eliseduzane kungagculisekanga ukuthi yonke imithetho iyonakwa noma kube khona ucwaningo lwamabhuko emaliopen in new window.

Ngengoba u-Bitcoin uhambiselana nokwehla kwamandla emali,kuyogcina sekungasenzeki lokho maduzane. Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Bitcoin elinganiselwe izigidi ezingama-21 kuyogcina ngokuthi ukwehla kwamandla emali kungasabi indaba yalutho. Kumanje kunezinhlelo ezimbili ezahlukene zemali: Inhlelo yokwehla kwamandla emali ngenxa yokukhiqiza imali ngokunganakekile kanye nohlelo lwemali lapho ihlenzekwa ngokulinganisiwe ukwabelana wonke umuntu. Olunye uhlelo luphimisekile ukuthi lufinyezelwe kithina ngempoqo, kanti olunye ludalelwe ukuthi ofunayo alukhethe ngokuthanda komuntu. Akudingeki ukuthi umuntu aze afake isiclo sokungena, ngoba bungekho ubunzima bokungena. Othandayo angazibambela iqhaza. Ubuhle be-Boitcoin lobo.

Ngingaphikisana nempikiswano ephekathi kuka Keynasianopen in new window no Austrianopen in new window ezomnotho izixhumananga nezemfundo kuphela.uSatoshi wakwazi ukwakha uhlelo olubalulekile lokudluliselwa kwama-steroids, ngokwakha imali enobungqubekela phambili into egakaze yabonwa ngaphambilini. Ngale kwalokho, iningi labantu liyofunda ngobukhonyovu obungukudluliselwa kwemali ngamabhange amakhulu. Uma kungenzeka ukuthi kube nokufana kwezinhlelo uma sekuyela ngasemaphethelwen, nje ngoba sekwenziwe ngabase-Austria nabanikazi bama-Bitcoin, bangakwazi ukuzibandakanya nalezinhlelo zezimali ezikhula njalo njalo ze inthanethi. Asoze abe khona ayokuba nqanda uma bekhetha ukwenza lokho.

uBitcoin wangifundisa ukuthi ukugcinwa kwemali ngamabhange amakhulu ngobungxenye mamba umsangano kuphela.


Isifundo 14: Imali enzinzile


"Okokuqala okumele ngikwenze,"Kusho u-Alice ekhuluma yedwa, elokhu ezula zula ehlathini, "ukukhula ngobukhulu obungifanele, okwesibili ukuthola indlela eyongifaka engadini yami ethandekayo. Ngicabanga ukuthi kuyoba icebo elihle lelo."

Isifundo esibalulekile angasifunda ngo-Bitcoinn ukuthi ekuhambeni kwesikhathi eside, imali yephepha idlula le esingayiboni engaphatheki. Imali ephathekayo , esingasho futhi ukuthi i-sound money, imali esihwebelana ngayo emhlabeni jikelele, oku indlela ethembekile enesigqi yokugcina imali.

Ngokulindelekile, u-Bitcoin usafika futhi unezinguquko eyithile. Abaphikisa u-Bitcoin bayothi awuna sigqi. Lezinguquko ezikhona izona ezidala ukuphuthelwa iphuzu. Ukuguqaguquka kwezinto kulindelekile vele. Amamakethe ayo thatha isikhathi ukuxazulula inani elifanele lemali entsha. Kanti ke, njengoba kuye kushiwo ngokuncokola ukuthi inani lemali entsha liyosuselwa ephutheni lokulinganisa. Uma ucabanga ngama dola, uyohluleka ukubona ukuthi u-Bitcoin owodwa uyohlezi ulinganiselwa kokukodwa .

"Ubuhlinzeki bemali elinganiselwe, noma imali elinganiselwe inhloso ethile kanye nohlelo olubaliwe, isimiselo esidengekayo esinenjongo yemali efanelekile." - Fr. Bernard W. Dempsey, S.J.open in new window

Kufaniswa nohambo olusheshayo ngasemathuneni ezimali zamazwe ekhohliwe nje ngoba kwaku tshengisiwe , imali enyathelisiwe iyo nyatheliswa . Kuze kube manje, akekho umuntu oke wakwazi ukubhekana nalesi silingo.

uBitcoin udala ukuthi kungabibikho isidingo sokunyathelisa imali nje ngendlela ejwayelekile. uSatoshi wakunaka lokhu ukuthi kunobuhaha kanye namaphutha avelayo--- ingakho wakhetha into ethembekile kunokuthi athembele ebantwini aba isivimbezelo: isayensi yezibalo.

Lelisu liyasebenziseka ukuchaza yokuhlinzekwa kwe-Bitcoin, alitholakali kalula ohlelweni. Ukuhlinzekwa kweBitcoin entsha kwenziwe ngendlela ehloliwe futhi elinganisiweopen in new window engumkhuba othile, ngokwehliswa komvuzo okhokhela abavukuzi eminyakeni emine njalo njalo. Lelisu elingenhla lisetshenziselwa ukuthi kusheshe kufinqwe ukuthi kwenzakalani okufihlakele. Okwenzeka ngempela singakubukisa ngokuthi sigxile ekutheni kube noshintsho kumvuso wama blokhi webitcoin, umvuzo okhokhelwa noma ubani othola iblokhi okuyilona, okwenzeka njalo emizuzwini e-10.

Ama-fomula, ama-logarithmic functions kanye nama-exponentials awaqondakali kalula. Kanti nomqondo okuthi soundnessungazwisiseka kalula uma ukubhekisa ngelinye iso. Uma sinalo ulwazi ngobungako bento, futhi sazi nobunzima bokwenza , sisheshe siqonde ukubaluleka kwako. Okuliqiniso ngemidwebo kaPicasso, isiginci sika Elvis Presley, kanye neviyolinikaStradivarius, kuyazifanela neqiniso lefiat currence, igolide kanye namabitcoin.

Ubulikhuni be-fiat currency bubekiswe ekutheni ubani ophethe izintambo ekunyathiselweni kwemali. Abanye ohulumeni bayakwazi ukuthi bahlinzeke imali eningi ukudlula amanye amazwe, kanti lokho kwehlisa amandla emali ezweni. Abanye ohulumeni bayakwazi ukubeka umkhawulo ekunyathiselweni kwemali, kanti lokhu kudala ukuthi imali yabo ibe namandla.

Ngaphambilini ingakabi khona i-fiat currency,isimo semali besibonakala ngempahla yalokho ebesikusebenzisa nje nge mali.Inani legolide lase mhlabeni lukhawulwe imitheto yesayensi. iGolide liyivela kancane ngoba akuvamile ukuthi izinkanyezi zihlangane ziqhume. Ukugeleza kwe golide kukhawuliwe ngoba kufana kufakwe umzamo othile. Nje ngoba igolide liyisithako semvelo esisindayo, sitholakala ngaphansi ekujuleni komhlaba.

Ukuqedwa kwe ainga legolide kulethe isimo esisha: Ukwenezelwa kwemali entsha kudinga u-ink omncane nje. Emhlabeni wanamuhla, ukufaka o-ziro abambalwa kwi bhalansi yase bhange okungadingi umzamo otheni:

"Isici esibalulekile esimweni esisha ukuthi, esikhungweni esifana ne-Fed asisoze saswela imali. Banga nyathelisa imali abayi dingayo ngaphandle kwezindleko" - Jörg Guido Hülsmannopen in new window

Umgomo obekiwe ngenhla, uveza ngokuvamile nje"nge silinganiso se "stock" to "flow". Ukubeka kalula, isitoko sichaza ubungakanani bento. Okwenjongo zethu, isitoko isilinganiso semali yamanje ekhona. u-flow uchaza ubungakanani bomkhiqizo ekuhambeni kwesikhathi (isib. ngonyaka). Ukuqondisisa i-mali enzinzile ukuqondisisa uhla lwe-stock-to-flow ratio.

Akulula ukubala i-stock-to-flow ratio se fiat currency , ngoba kune mali engakananiopen in new window kuncike ekutheni uyibuka kanjani.Ungabala imali yephepha yodwa noma amakhoini ewodwa (M0), uhlanganise nasheki labahambi kanye nesheki lemali egcinwawo (M1), uhlanganise nemali ye-akhawunti yokonga neye-mutual fund nezinye izinto 9M2), uphinde uhlanganise nezitifiketi zamadiphozithi wakonke lokho (M3). Ngokuqhubekayo, lokhu kuya ngokuthi izwe nezwe likuchaza kanjani kuphinde kukulinganise njani, ilokhu i-US Federal Reserve [yamisa ukushicilela] amanani we-M3, sekumele kuncengwe ngemali ye M2. Ngithanda ukuqinisekisa leli nani, kodwa ngibona kungcono ukuthi sethembe uhulumeni kulokhu.

Igolide, njengolunye uhlobo lwensimbi eyivela kancane emhlabeni, line nani eliphezulu le-stock-to-flow ratio. Ngokusho kwe US Geological Survey, ithane elincane elilinganiselwe u-190,000 selembiwe. Eminyakeni edluleopen in new window, lilinganiselwa kuma thani angama-3100 igolide elembiwe ngonyaka.

Ekusebenziseni lezi nombolo, singabala kalula i-stock-to-ratio se golide: 190,000 tons / 3,100 tons = ~61.

Akukho okungaphezulo okudlula igolide nge-stock-to-flow ratio. Ingakho namanje igolide, kwaba ilona elaqopha umlando ngokuba imali yangempela. Kuye kushiwo ukuthi lonke igolide elike lambiwa linga nela ezindaweni ezimbili zokubhuguda ze-olimpi. Ngokuya ngezibalo zamiopen in new window, siyodinga ezine. Mhlambe lokhu kudinga ukuthi kubuyekezwe, noma iindawo zokubhuguda sezaba ncane.

Asingene kwi-Bitcoin. Njengoba wazi, ukumbiwa kwe bitcoin kwaba ukufutheka okwenzeka eminyakeni edlule. Lokhu kwenziwa ukuthi sisesigabeni esisha esibizwa nge reward era lapho ama-mining nodes aklonyeliswa ngama bitcoin amaningi ngemizamo yamakhompyutha . Sisesigabeni se-4, esaqala ngonyaka ka-2020 futhi siyophela nekuqaleni konyaka ka-2024, mhlampe ngenyanga kaNhlaba. Nje ngoba ukuhlinzeka kwe bitcoin kuhleliwe, ingaphakathi lokukhandwa kwe Bitcoin livumela ukubekwa kwezi nsuku ezilinganiselwe kuphela. Nokho, singaqagela sisho ukuthi kuyobe kuphezulu kangananani ukugeleza kwesitoko se bitcoin. Ngikuhlebele: Siyobe siphezulu kakhulu.

Iphakeme kangakanani? Nokho, kuvela ukuthi i-Bitcoin izoba nzima kakhulu.

Visualization of stock and flow for USD, gold, and Bitcoin

Njengoba kunokwehla komvuzo oqhamuka emayini, ukugobhoza kwe bitcoin kuncitshisiwe. Ingalinganiselwa kwi-golide ngonyaka ka-2020, kanti ke kuyodlulela eminyakeni emini elandelayo ngokuphinda kabili indlela yokuqhuba. Lesi siphindiso senzeka isikhathi esingalinganiselwa kuma-64 uma kuhlangene. Sibonge kumandla enziwa ngama-exponential, inani le bitcoin embiwayo ngonyaka lizokwehla nge 100, eminyakeni e-50 nangaphansi eminyakeni e-75. Kungenzeka ngonyaka ka-2140 kumiswe ukwnziwa kukaBitcoin, lokhu kwenziwa ukuthi ama-faucets asemhlabeni oku ngama block reward ayophela. Umdlalo omude lo. Uma usafunda lokhu, usenesikhathi.

Rising stock-to-flow ratio of bitcoin as compared to gold

Njengoba bukhona be bitcoin budlondlobala, kuyofika isikhathi lapho seku imali esetshenziswa nje nge mali yethu yenjwayelo. Akusoze kwanqotshwa lokhu.

Uma sibuka ngeso lezomnotho, uhlelo lobunzima ku-bitcoin, enye ingxenye yayo ebalulekile. Kunzima uku mayina ubitcoin, lokhu kuya ngokuthi mangakanani ama bitcoin amasha akhandwayo*. Lokhu kwenziwa ukuthi lobunzima obudaliwe busiza ekutheni sikwazi ukuqagela ukuthi kuzofuneka amabitcoin angakanani.

(Lokhu kuya ngokuthi amablokhi atholakale ngokushesha okungakanani, kodwa kuyazifanela nezinjongo zethu ezi ukuthi "ukugubha ubtcoin emayinikungaba umsebenzi ongathatha iminyaka engama-120.)*

Ubulula bezinhelo eziletha ubunzima zingaba isiphazaniso ekujuleni kweBitcoin, kodwa lokhu kusuke ku inguquko kuzilinganiso ezihlelwe nguEinstein. Kuqinisekisa ukuthi akunandaba ukuthi umzamo ofakiwe emayini,ukuhlinzeka kwe Bitcoin asoze kwaphazanyiswa. Ngokuphambene nezinye izinto, akunandaba ukuthi amandla asetshenzisiweopen in new window umuntu angawafaka ekugubheni kwe bitcoin emayini, umvuzo ophelele awusoze wakhushulwa.

Nje nge E=mc² iyala umkhawulo wesivinini osemhlabeniopen in new window emhlabeni wethu, izinhlelo zobunzima ezidaliwe zeBitcoin , zilawula umkhawulo wemali yasemhlabeni

Ukube zazingekho izinhelo eziletha ubunzima, ngabe onke amabitcoin ayembulwa kumanje.Uma zazingekho izinselele ezibekiwe, ngabe uBitcoin awukwazanga ukusinda ekusungulweni wawo. Lokhu kuqinisa uhlelo esikhathi samanje somvuzo. Ilokhu okuqinisekisa ukuzinza kanye nokusatshalaliswa okufaneleopen in new windowkwe bitcoin entsha. Iyona ndlela ehlolisisa inqubomgomo yeBitcoin.

uEinstein wasitshengisa okuthile okusha esingakaze sakubona ngaphambilini: akugculisekanga ukuthi ungafudula into kangakanani, kuyofika isikhathi lapho ungasakwazi ukushesha khona. uSatoshi wabikisa ngokuthi: akunandaba ukuthi unga gubha kangakanani , leligolide ledijithali ekuhambeni kwesikhathi angeke kusaba lula ukuthola omunye ubitcoin. Okokuqala ngqa! emlandweni iinhlelo zemali zihamba kahle, futhi akunandaba ukuthi uzama kangakanani, asoze wakhiqiza ngokwedlulele.

uBitcoin wangifundisa ngobumqoka be-mali enzinzile.

Isahluko III: Ubuchwepheshe


"Manje, ngizophatha kangcono kulokhu" ekhuluma yedwa, waqala ngokuthatha ukhiye omncane wegolide, avule umnyango ongena engadini

Okhiye begolide, amawashi asebenza ngenhlanhla kuphela, imijaho yokuxazulula izimfumbe eziyinqaba, nabakhi abangenabo ubuso namagama. Yini ezwakala njengezinganekwane ezivela I-Wonderland iyibhizinisi lansuku zonke emhlabeni weBitcoin.

Njengoba sihlole Isahluko 2, izingxenye ezinkulu zezimali zamanje. amasistimu aphukile ngokuhlelekile. Njengo-Aliceopen in new window, singathemba kuphela ukuphatha kangcono ngalesi sikhathi. Kodwa, ngenxa yomsunguli ongaziwa, sinakho ngendlela emangalisayo ubuchwepheshe obuyindida ukusisekela kulokhu: Bitcoin.

Ukuxazulula izinkinga endaweni ehlukaniswe ngokwedlulele kanye nephikisanayo idinga izixazululo ezihlukile. Okunye obekungaba yizinkinga ezingathi shu ukuxazululwa kukhona konke kodwa kulo mhlaba ongaziwa wama-node. I-Bitcoin incike ekuqineni i-cryptography yezixazululo eziningi, okungenani uma ibhekwa ngelensi ye ubuchwepheshe. Ukuthi iqine kangakanani le cryptography izobhekwa kwenye ye izifundo ezilandelayo.

I-Cryptography yilokho i-Bitcoin eyisebenzisayo ukususa ukwethemba iziphathimandla. Esikhundleni se ngokwethembela ezikhungweni ezimaphakathi, uhlelo luncike emagunyeni okugcina Umkhathi wethu: i-physics. Nokho, ezinye izinhlamvu zokwethembana zisekhona. Sizokwenza kanjalo hlola lezi zinhlamvu esifundweni sesibili salesi sahluko.

Izifundo zangaphambilini zakwazi ukuhlaziya iinkambo zokuthuthukiswa kwezobuchwepheshe ngoBitcoin, lokhu kubaluleke ngokulinana nobuchwepheshe imbala. uBitcoin akuwona uhlelo olucwebezelayo lomakhalekhukhwini wakho nje. Lokhu kuyisisusa esiletha isimo esisha esezomnotho, ingakho uBitcoin kumele uphathiswe kuhle kwezikhali zamantungwa emkhakheni wezezimali.

Singaphakathi kwe nguquko yezezimali,ezomphakathi kanye nezobuchwepheshe. Ngaphambilini, ezobuchwepheshe kanye namanethiwekhi zingasebenza nje ngezingathekiso zeBitcoin esikhathini esizayo, sesike sakuhlaziya esifundweni sokugcina ngaphambilini salesahluko.

Kanye futhi, fasa ibhande, uthokozele uhambo.


Isifundo 15: Amandla kwizinombolo


Ake ngibone: kune kuphindwe kahlanu kuba ishumi nambili, futhi kane ngokuphindwe kasithupha kuba ishumi nantathu, futhi kane ngokuphindwe kasikhombisa kuba ishumi nane—oh bathandekayo! Angisoze ngafinyelela emashumini amabili ngaleli zinga!

Izinombolo ziyingxenye ebalulekile yokuphila kwethu kwansuku zonke. Izinombolo ezinkulu, Nokho, akuyona into iningi lethu eliyijwayeleke kakhulu. Ezinkulu kunazo zonke izinombolo esingase sihlangane nazo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke zisebangeni lazo izigidi, izigidigidi, noma izigidigidi. Singase sifunde ngezigidi zabantu abampofu, izigidigidi zamarandi ezichithwe ekutakulweni kwebhange, kanye nezigidigidi zamarandi zesikweletu sikazwelonke. Noma kunzima ukwenza umqondo walezi zihloko, sithi ukukhululeka ngosayizi walezo zinombolo.

Nokuba singase sibonakale sikhululekile ngezigidigidi nezigidigidi, zethu Sivele siqala ukwehluleka ngezinombolo zalobu bukhulu. Ingabe ube nombono wokuthi uzolinda isikhathi esingakanani ukuthi imizuzwana esigidi/esigidigidi/esigidintathu idlule? Uma ufana nami, ulahlekile ngaphandle kokuhlanganisa izinombolo.

Ake sihlolisise lesi sibonelo: umehluko phakathi kwento ngayinye ukukhuphuka ngama-oda amathathu obukhulu: 10⁶, 10⁹, 10¹². Ukucabanga imizuzwana ayilusizo kakhulu, ngakho-ke masihumushe lokhu kube into yethu singasonga amakhanda ethu:

  • 10⁶: Isigidi samasekhondi ayisigidi sasisevikini elingu-1½ eledlule.
  • 10⁹: Imizuzwana eyibhiliyoni eyodwa yayicishe ibe yiminyaka engama-32 edlule.
  • 10¹²: Isigidintathu samasekhondi adlule i-Manhattan ibimbozwe ngaphansi okujiyile ungqimba lweqhwaopen in new window.

Cishe isigidintathu samasekhondi adlule. Umthombo: xkcd #1225

Ngokushesha nje lapho singena endaweni edlula umhlaba wezinkanyezi wesimanje we-cryptography, umuzwa wethu wehluleka ngendlela eyingozi. I-Bitcoin yakhiwe eduze kwezinombolo ezinkulu kanye nokungenzeki okubonakalayo kokuziqagela. Lezi zinombolo ziyindlela, zikhulu kakhulu kunanoma yini esingase sihlangane nayo ebuphilweni kwansuku zonke. Ama-oda amaningi obukhulu amakhulu. Ukuqonda ukuthi zinkulu kanjani lezi zinombolo kubalulekile ngempela ekuqondeni i-Bitcoin ngokuphelele.

Masithathe i-SHA-256open in new window, omunye wemisebenzi ye-hashopen in new window esetshenziswa ku-Bitcoin, njenge sibonelo esiphathekayo. Kungokwemvelo ukucabanga ngamabhithi angama-256 ngokuthi "amakhulu amabili namashumi amahlanu nesithupha,” okungesilo inani elikhulu nhlobo. Nokho, inombolo ku-SHA-256 ikhuluma ngama-oda wobukhulu --- into yethu ubuchopho bethu engahlomelwe kahle ukubhekana nayo.

Ngenkathi ubude bebhithi buyimethrikhi elula, incazelo yangempela ye-256-bit yokuphepha kulahleka ekuhumusheni. Okufana nezigidi (10⁶) kanye izigidigidi (10⁹) ngenhla, inombolo eku-SHA-256 imayelana nama-oda obukhulu (2²⁵⁶).

Ngakho, iqine kangakanani i-SHA-256, ncamashi?

"I-SHA-256 inamandla kakhulu. Ayifani nesinyathelo esikhuphukayo ukusuka ku-MD5 ku-SHA1. Kungathatha amashumi ambalwa eminyaka ngaphandle uma kukhona okukhulu ukuhlasela okuphumelelayo." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Ake sichaze izinto. 2²⁵⁶ ilingana nenombolo elandelayo:

115 quattuorvigintillion 792 trevigintillion 89 duovigintillion 237 unvigintillion 316 vigintillion 195 novemdecillion 423 octodecillion 570 septendecillion 985 sexdecillion 8 quindecillion 687 quattuordecillion 907 tredecillion 853 duodecillion 269 undecillion 984 decillion 665 nonillion 640 octillion 564 septillion 39 sextillion 457 quintillion 584 quadrillion 7 trillion 913 billion 129 million 639 thousand 936.

Inqwaba yezigidigidi! Ukusonga ikhanda lakho kule nombolo cishe akunakwenzeka. Akukho lutho endaweni yonke ebonakalayo engaqhathaniswa nayo. Kukhulu kakhulu kunenani lama-athomu ku ndawo yonke ebonakalayo. Ubuchopho bomuntu abuzange bube nomqondo wayo.

Okunye okubonwayo okuhle kakhulu kwamandla eqiniso e-SHA-256 yilokhu kulandela ividiyo kaGrant Sanderson. Iqanjwe ngokufanelekile "Ingabe ivikeleke kangakanani i-256 bit?"open in new window kukhombisa kahle ukuthi sikhulu kangakanani isikhala esingu-256-bit. Thatha imizuzu emihlanu uyibuke. Njengabo bonke abanye 3Blue1Brownopen in new window amavidiyo awagcini nje ngokuhlaba umxhwele kodwa futhi ahlukile enziwe kahle. Isexwayiso: Ungase uhehwe izibalo.

Impendulo: Ivikeleke kahle.

Bruce Schneieropen in new window usebenzise imikhawulo ebonakalayo yokubala ukuze abeke le nombolo kumbono: noma singakha ikhompuyutha elungile, engasebenzisa noma yimaphi amandla enikeziwe ukuze ukuguqula izingcezu kahleopen in new window, yakhe i-Dyson sphereopen in new window ezungeze ilanga lethu, futhi ilivumele lisebenze izigidigidi eziyi-100 zeminyaka, sisazoba nethuba elingu-25% lokuthola inaliti endaweni ye-256-bit haystack.

“Lezi zinombolo azihlangene nobuchwepheshe bemishini; zingama-maximus azovunyelwa yi-thermodynamics. Futhi bona kusho kakhulu ukuthi ukuhlasela kwe-brute-force ngokumelene nokhiye be-256-bit kuzoba okungenzeki kuze kube amakhompyutha akhiwe ngento engeyona indaba futhi uthathe okuthile ngaphandle kwesikhala." [Bruce Schneier](https://books.google.com/books?id=Ok0nDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT316&dq=%22Lezi+zinombolo+azihlangene+kanye+nobuchwepheshe+bamadivaysi ;%22&hl=zu&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjXttWl8YLhAhUphOAKHZZOCcsQ6AEIKjAA#v=ikhasi elilodwa&q&f=false)

Kunzima ukweqisa ukujula kwalokhu. I-cryptography eqinile iguqula amandla-webhalansi yomhlaba wenyama esiwajwayele. Izinto ezinganqamuki azikho emhlabeni wangempela. Sebenzisa amandla anele, futhi uyokwazi ukuvula noma yimuphi umnyango, ibhokisi, noma isifuba sengcebo.

Isifuba se-Bitcoin segugu sihluke kakhulu. Ivikelwe ngamandla i-cryptography, engavumeli amandla anonya. Futhi inqobo nje uma ukuqagela kwezibalo okuyisisekelo, amandla anonya yikho konke esinakho. Kuyavunywa, kukhona futhi inketho yomhlaba wonke $5 wrench attackopen in new window. Kodwa ukuhlushwa ngeke kusebenze kuwo wonke amakheli we-bitcoin, kanye nezinsonga ze-cryptography ze-bitcoin zizonqoba ukuhlaselwa yi-brute force. Noma ungafika kukho ngamandla amalanga ayinkulungwane. Ngokwezwi nezwi.

Leli qiniso nemithelela yalo kwafinyezwa kahle ku call to cryptographicopen in new window: "Alikho inani lamandla olungakucindezela ukuthi uxazulule inkinga yezibalo."

"Akubonakali ukuthi umhlaba bekumele usebenze ngale ndlela. Kodwa ngandlela thize umkhathi uyamamatheka ekubetheleni." Julian Assangeopen in new window

Akekho okwamanje owazi ngokuqinisekile ukuthi ukumamatheka kwendawo yonke kuyiqiniso noma cha. Kungenzeka ukuthi ukucabanga kwethu kwama-asymmetries ezibalo akulungile futhi sithola ukuthi u-P empeleni ulingana no-NPopen in new window, noma sithola ngokushesha okumangalisayo izixazululo zezinkinga ezithileopen in new window esicabanga ukuthi zinzima njengamanje. Uma kufanele kube njalo, i-cryptography njengoba sazi izophela zikhona, futhi imiphumela ingase ishintshe umhlaba ngale ukuqashelwa.

"Vires in Numeris" = "Amandla Ezinombolo" - epiiopen in new window

I-Vires in numeris akusona nje isiqubulo esihehayo esisetshenziswa ama-bitcoiners. Ukuqaphela ukuthi kukhona amandla angenakulinganiswa angatholakala ku zinombolo kujulile. Ukuqonda lokhu, kanye nokuguqulwa kwezilinganiso zamandla ezikhona ezivumela ukuthi ziguqule umbono wami ngezwe kanye nekusasa elisihlalele.

Umphumela owodwa oqondile walokhu ukuthi awudingi ukubuza noma ubani ukuze uthole imvume yokubamba iqhaza ku-Bitcoin. Alikho ikhasi ongalibhalisa, ayikho inkampani ephethe, akukho sikhungo sikahulumeni esingathumela amafomu ezicelo kuso. Vele ukhiqize inombolo enkulu futhi ulungele ukuhamba. Igunya elimaphakathi lokudala i-akhawunti yizibalo. Futhi uNkulunkulu kuphela owaziyo ukuthi ngubani ophethe lokho.

Izibonelo ze-elliptic curve (cc-by-sa Emmanuel Boutet)

I-Bitcoin yakhelwe phezu kokuqonda kwethu okungcono kakhulu kweqiniso. Ngenkathi zikhona inkinga eziningi ezivulekile ku-physics, isayensi yekhomphyutha, kanye nezibalo, siqinisekile ngezinto ezithile. Ukuthi kukhona i-asymmetry phakathi kokukuthola izixazululo nokuqinisekisa ukunemba kwalezi zixazululo enye into enjalo. Lokho kubala kudinga amandla kungenye. Ngamanye amazwi: ukuthola inaliti ku-haystack kunzima kunokuhlola uma into ekhombayo esandleni sakho iyinaliti ngempela noma cha. Futhi ukuthola i inaliti kuthatha umsebenzi.

Ubukhulu besikhala samakheli e-Bitcoin buyamangaza ngempela. Inani lokhiye abayimfihlo nakakhulu. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi kungakanani kwezwe lethu lanamuhla ekungenzeki kokuthola inaliti endaweni i-haystack enkulu ngokungenakulinganiswa. Manje sengilazi kahle leli qiniso kunangaphambili.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi kukhona amandla ngezinombolo.


Isifundo 16: Ukuzindla kokuthi "Ungathembi, Qinisekisa"


"Manje ukuze uthole ubufakazi," kusho iNkosi, "bese kulandela isigwebo."

I-Bitcoin ihlose ukushintsha, noma okungenani inikeze enye indlela, yemali evamile. Imali evamile iboshelwe endaweni eyodwa yegunya, noma ngabe sikhuluma ngethenda esemthethweni njengedola lase-US noma imali yesimanje ye-monopoly efana ne-Fortnite's V-Bucks. Kuzo zombili izibonelo, ubophezelekile ukwethemba igunya eliphakathi ukuze ukhiphe, uphathe futhi uhambise imali yakho. I-Bitcoin ikhulula lesi sibopho, kanye nodaba oluyinhloko I-Bitcoin ixazulula inkinga yokwe-kwethembeka.

"Inkinga eyinhloko ngemali evamile ukuthembana okuyikho okudingekayo ukuze isebenze. [...] Okudingekayo yisistimu ye-elekthroniki yokukhokha esekelwe ebufakazini obufihlakele esikhundleni sokwethenjwa" - Satoshiopen in new window Nakamotoopen in new window

I-Bitcoin ixazulula inkinga yokuthembana ngokuhlukaniswa ngokuphelele, ngaphandle kweseva emaphakathi noma amaqembu athenjiwe. Akuthenjwa ngisho okwesithathu amaqembu, kodwa amaqembu athembekile, isikhathi. Lapho kungekho igunya, akukho-muntu ongamethemba. Ukwabiwa okuphelele kwamazwe wukuqamba okusha. Kungumsuka wokuqina kweBitcoin, isizathu kungani isaphila. Ukwabiwa kwamazwe yingakho sinezimayini, ama-node, izikhwama zehadiwe, futhi yebo, i-blockchain. Into kuphela wena Kufanele "sithembele" ukuthi ukuqonda kwethu izibalo kanye ne-physics ayicishiwe ngokuphelele nokuthi iningiopen in new window yabavukuzi benza ngokwethembeka (okuyinto bakhuthazwa ukuba bakwenze).

Ngenkathi umhlaba ojwayelekile usebenza ngaphansi kokucatshangwa kokuthi "themba, kodwa qinisekisa," i-Bitcoin isebenza ngaphansi kokucatshangwa kokuthi "ungathembi, qinisekisa." USatoshi wenza ukubaluleka kokususa ukwethembana kwacaca kakhulu kokubili isingeniso kanye nesiphetho se- Bitcoin whitepaperopen in new window.

"Isiphetho: Senze isiphakamiso sesistimu yokuthengiselana ye-elekthroniki ngaphandle kokuthembela ekuthembekeni."- Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Qaphela ukuthi "ngaphandle kokuthembela ekwethembeni" kusetshenziswa umongo othize kakhulu lapha. Sikhuluma ngabantu besithathu abathenjwayo, okungukuthi amanye amabhizinisi owethembayo ukuthi azokukhiqiza, abambe, futhi acubungule imali yakho. Kucatshangwa ukuthi, isibonelo, ungathemba ikhompuyutha yakho.

Njengoba u-Ken Thompson ebonisile enkulumweni yakhe ye-Turing Award, ukwethembana kuyinto enzima kakhulu emhlabeni wezibalo. Uma uphethe uhlelo, kufanele wethembe zonke izinhlobo ze-software (ne-hardware) okuthi, ngokombono, ingashintsha uhlelo ozama ukuluqalisa ngonya wendlela. Njengoba u-Thompson afingqa kweyakhe I-Reflections on Trusting Trustopen in new window[]: "Ukuziphatha kusobala. Awukwazi ukwethemba ikhodi ongayenzanga ngokuphelele zidale wena."

U-Thompson ubonise ukuthi ngisho noma ukwazi ukufinyelela ikhodi yomthombo, umhlanganisi wakho --- noma yiluphi olunye uhlelo lokuphatha uhlelo noma i-hardware --- ungaba sengozini futhi ukuthola lomnyango wasemuva kungaba nzima kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, ekusebenzeni, uhlelo olungathembeki ngempela alukho. Kuzodingeka udale yonke i-software yakho kanye nayo yonke eyakho ihadiwe (abahlanganisi, abahlanganisi, abaxhumanisi, njll.) kusukela ekuqaleni, ngaphandle ngosizo lwanoma iyiphi isofthiwe yangaphandle noma umshini wokusiza isofthiwe.

"Uma ufisa ukwenza uphaya we-apula kusukela ekuqaleni, kufanele uqale usungule indawo yonke." - Carl Saganopen in new window

I-Ken Thompson Hack iyi-blackdoor ehlakaniphe kakhulu futhi okunzima ukuyibona, ngakho-ke ake sibheke ngokushesha i-backdoor okunzima ukuyibona isebenza ngaphandle kokushintsha noma iyiphi i-software. Abacwaningi bathole indlelaopen in new window faka engcupheni ihadiwe ebaluleke kakhulu kwezokuvikela ngokushintsha i-polarity youkungcola kwe-silikhono. Ngokushintsha nje izakhiwo ezibonakalayo ze- izinto ezenziwe ngama-computer chips zikwazile ukuxegisa a jeneretha yenombolo engahleliwe evikelekile ngokwe-khripthografi. Ngoba lolu shintsho alubonakali, , i-backdoor ayikwazi ukubonwa ngeso, okungenye yezindlela ezibaluleke kakhulu zokubona ukugqekezwa kwezinto ezifana nalezi.

Stealthy Dopant-Level Hardware Trojans by Becker, Regazzoni, Paar, Burleson

Kuzwakala kuthusa? Nokho, noma ngabe uzokwazi ukwakha yonke into kusukela ekucaleni, kusazodingeka uthembele izibalo eziyisisekelo. Wena kuzomele uthembe ukuthi secp256k1open in new window iyijika elbumbeke okwecanda ngaphandle kwama-blackdoor. Yebo, izicabha ezingemuva ezinonya zingafakwa kuzibalo izisekelo zemisebenzi ye-khripthografi futhi ngokungangabazeki lokhu sekuvele sekukhona kwenzekileopen in new window okungenani kanye. Kunezizathu ezinhle zokwesaba, futhi iqiniso lokuthi yonke into isuka ku-hardware yakho, kuya kwi-software yakho, kuya ku-majika abumbeke okweqanda asetshenzisiwe angaba backdoorsopen in new window amanye awo.

"Ungathembi. Qinisekisa."

Izibonelo ezingenhla kufanele zibonise ukuthi ukusetshenziwa kwe-khompuyuthaokungadingi ukuthemba kubalulekile. I-Bitcoin cishe iwuhlelo olulodwa olusondela kakhulu kulokhu, kodwa noma kunjalo, ukwethenjwa-kuncishisiwe --- kuhloswe ukususa ukwethembana lapho kungenzeka khona. Ngokungangabazeki, uqhungeqhunge lokwethembeka alupheli, kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuzodingeka futhi uthembele ukuthi ukubala kudinga amandla, ukuthi i-P ayilingani ne-NP, nokuthi empeleni ungokoqobo futhi cha uboshwe ekufanisweni kwabalingisi abanonya.

Onjiniyela basebenza ngamathuluzi nezinqubo zokunciphisa noma yikuphi okusele ukuthemba. Isibonelo, onjiniyela be-Bitcoin badale i-Gitianopen in new window, okuyindlela yokusabalalisa isofthiwe yokudala ukwakha okunqunyiwe. Umbono wukuthi uma onjiniyela abaningi bekwazi ukukhiqiza ngokufanayo kanambambili, ithuba lokuhlukumeza ngonya liyancipha. Izicabha ezingemuva akuzona kuphela indlela yokuhlasela. I-blackmail elula noma ukukhwabanisa kungokoqobo izinsongo kanye. Njengakuphrothokholi eyinhloko, ukuhlukaniswa kwezindawo kusetshenziselwa ukunciphisa ukwethembana.

Imizamo eyahlukene iyenziwa ukuze kuthuthukiswe kunkinga yenkukhu neqanda ye-bootstrappingopen in new window lapho ukugebenga kukua Ken Thompson okumangalisayo kwaveza. Omunye umzamo onjalo uthi Guixopen in new window (liphinyiselwe geeks), esebenzisa ukuphathwa kwephakheji okumenyezelwe ngokusebenzayo okuholela ku-bit-for-bit kakhiwa kabusha. Umphumela uba ukuthi awudingi wethemba noma yimaphi amaseva ahlinzeka ngesofthiwe njengoba ungakuqinisekisa lokho kanambambili ophakiwe awuphazanyiswanga ngokuwakha kabusha kusukela ekuqaleni. Muva nje, i-pull-requestopen in new window ihlanganiswe ukuze kuhlanganiswe i-Guix ekwakhiweni kwenqubo ye-Bitcoin.

Iyiphi efike kuqala, inkukhu noma iqanda?

Ngenhlanhla, i-Bitcoin ayincikile ku-algorithm eyodwa noma ucezu lwe-hardware. Omunye umthelela wokuhlukaniswa okukhulu kweBitcoin yimodeli yokuphepha esabalalisiwe. Nakuba ama-backdoors achazwe ngenhla akufanele athathwe kalula, akunakwenzeka ukuthi sonke isikhwama se-software, sonke isikhwama sehadiwe, yonke imitapo yolwazi eyimfihlo, yonke indawo yokuqaliswa, futhi wonke umdidiyeli wazo zonke izilimi usengozini. Kungenzeka, kodwa akunakwenzeka kakhulu.

Qaphela ukuthi ungakwazi ukukhiqiza ukhiye oyimfihlo ngaphandle kokuncika kunoma yiyiphi i-hardware yekhompyutha noma isofthiwe. Ungakwazi ukuguqula uhlamvu lwemaliopen in new window ezimbalwa izikhathi, nakuba kuye ngokuthi uhlamvu lwakho lwemali kanye nesitayela sokuphonsa lo mthombo okungahleliwe kungase kungabi ngokungahleliwe ngokwanele. Kunesizathu sokuthi kungani izimiso zokugcina ezifana ne-Glacieropen in new window zeluleka ukusebenzisa idayisi lezinga lekhasino njengelilodwa emithonjeni emibili ye-entropy.

I-Bitcoin yangiphoqa ukuthi ngicabange ngalokho ukwethemba okungekho muntu okuhlanganisayo. Kukhulise ukuqwashisa kwami ​​​​ngenkinga ye-bootstrapping, kanye noqhungeqhunge lokwethembeka olusobala ekuthuthukiseni nasekusebenziseni isofthiwe. Iphinde yakhulisa kwami ukuqwashisa ngezindlela eziningi i-software ne-hardware ozingaba sengozini.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ngingathembi, kodwa ngiqinisekise.


Isifundo 17: Ukufunda isikhathi kuthatha umsebenzi


"Sithandwa, sithandwa! Ngizobe semava kwesikhathi kakhulu!"

Ngokuvamile kuthiwa ama-bitcoins ambiwa ngenxa yezinkulungwane zamakhompiyutha ezisebenza ekuxazululeni izinkinga eziyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu zezibalo. Izinkinga ezithile kufanele zixazululwe, futhi uma ubala impendulo efanele, "ukhiqiza" i-bitcoin. Nakuba lo mbono owenziwe lula wezimayini ze-bitcoin ungase ube lula ukuwudlulisa, uyaligeja iphuzu ngandlela thize. Ama-Bitcoins awakhiqizwa noma adaliwe, futhi lonke usizi alukona ngempela ukuxazulula izinkinga zezibalo ezithile. Futhi, izibalo azinzima neze. Yini inkimbinkimbi ukufunda isikhathi kusistimu ehlukaniselwe amazwe.

Njengoba kuchaziwe ku-Whitepaper, uhlelo lobufakazi bomsebenzi (olubizwa ngezimayini) luyindlela yokusebenzisa iseva yesitembu sesikhathi esabalalisiwe.

Okucashuniwe ku-whitepaper. Ingabe othile uthe i-timechain?

Lapho ngiqala ukufunda ukuthi i-Bitcoin isebenza kanjani nami ngacabanga ukuthi ubufakazi bokusebenza abusebenzi futhi buyamosha. Ngemva kwesikhashana, ngaqala ukushintsha wami umbono wokusebenzisa amandla e-Bitcoinopen in new window. Kubonakala sengathi ubufakazi bomsebenzi busaqondwa kabanzi namuhla, ngonyaka we-10 AB (ngemuva kweBitcoin).

Njengoba izinkinga ezizoxazululwa kubufakazi bomsebenzi zenziwe, abantu abaningi babonakala bekholelwa ukuthi kungumsebenzi ongenamsebenzi. Uma ukugxila kumsulwa ekubalweni, lesi isiphetho esiqondakalayo. Kodwa Bitcoin ayimayelana nokubala. Imayelana nokuvumelana ngokuzimela mayelana nokuhleleka kwezinto.

Ubufakazi bomsebenzi wuhlelo lapho wonke umuntu engaqinisekisa okwenzekile nokuthi kwenzeka kanjani. Lokhu kuqinisekiswa okuzimele yikho okuholelayo ukuze kuvunyelwane, isivumelwano somuntu ngamunye samaqembu amaningi mayelana nokuthi ubani uphethe ini.

Esimweni esihlukaniswe ngokwedlulele, asinakho ukunethezeka isikhathi esiphelele. Noma yiliphi iwashi lingathula umuntu wesithathu othembekile, iphuzu elimaphakathi ohlelweni obekufanele kuthenjelwe kulo futhi okungenzeka kube uhlaselwe. "Isikhathi siyimpande yenkinga," njengoba u-Grisha Trubetskoy ashoopen in new window. Futhi uSatoshi uyixazulule kahle le nkinga ngokusebenzisa iwashi elinganamnikai nge-blockchain yobufakazi bomsebenzi. Wonke umuntu uyavuma ngaphambili ukuthi iketango elinomsebenzi oqoqwe kakhulu liwumthombo weqiniso. Kungokwencazelo ngayinye ukuthi kwenzekeni. Lesi sivumelwano manje saziwa ngokuthi yi-Nakamoto consensus.

"Inethiwekhi igxilisa isitembu sesikhathi okwenziwayo ngokukusheshisa kuchungechunge oluqhubekayo olusebenza njengobufakazi bokulandelana kwezehlakalo ezifakazelwe" - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Ngaphandle kwendlela engaguquki yokusho isikhathi, ayikho indlela engaguquki tshela ngaphambili kusukela ngemva. Uku-oda okuthembekile akunakwenzeka. Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, ukuvumelana kwaka-Nakamoto kuyindlela ye-Bitcoin yokutshela ngokungaguquki kwesikhathi. Isakhiwo sesistimu yesinxephezelo sikhiqiza iwashi enganamnini, ngokusebenzisa kokubili ukuhaha nokuzicabangela wena ngokungahlanganyeli nokuqhudelana. Iqiniso lokuthi leli washi alinembile akubalulekile ngoba ukulandelana kwezehlakalo kugcine kungacaci futhi kungenzeka ziqinisekiswe yinoma ubani.

Siyabonga ngobufakazi bomsebenzi, kokubili umsebenzi kanye nokuqinisekiswa komsebenzi kuzimele. Wonke umuntu angajoyina futhi ahambe ngokuthanda kwakhe, futhi wonke umuntu angaqinisekisa yonke into ngaso sonke isikhathi. Hhayi lokho kuphela, kodwa wonke umuntu angaqinisekisa isimo sohlelo ngamunye, ngaphandle kokwethembela kunoma ubani ukuze kuqinisekiswe.

Ukuqonda ubufakazi bomsebenzi kuthatha isikhathi. Kuvamise ukuphikisa, futhi ngenkathi imithetho ilula, kuholela ezimeni eziyinkimbinkimbi. Kimina, ukushintsha umbono wami ngeokwemba kwasiza. kuwusizo. Ukuqinisekisa, hhayi ukubala. Isikhathi, hhayi amabhlogo.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ukutshela isikhathi kuyinkimbinkimbi, ikakhulukazi uma uzimele.


Isifundo 18: Hamba kancane futhi ungaphuli izinto


Ngakho-ke isikebhe sahamba kancane, ngaphansi kosuku olukhanyayo lwasehlobo, nabasebenzi baso abajabulayo nomculo waso wamaphimbo nohleko...

Kungase kube isiqbulo esifile, kodwa "hamba ngokushesha futhi uphule izinto" kusenjalo umhlaba omningi we-zobuchwepheshe uyasebenza. Umqondo wokuthi akusho lutho uma wena lungisa izinto okokuqala kuyinsika yokwehluleka kusenesikhathi, ukuhluleka kaningi ingqondo. Impumelelo ikalwa ngokukhula, inqobo nje uma wena uyakhula konke kuhamba kahle. Uma into ingasebenzi ekuqaleni, wena shintsha futhi uphindaphinde. Ngamanye amazwi: phonsa ngokwanele ubone ukuthi yini ousebenzayo.

I-Bitcoin ihluke kakhulu. Ihlukile ngokuklama. Ihlukile ngenxa yesidingo. Njengoba u-Satoshi ebonisileopen in new window, imali ye-inthanethi (e-currency) izanyiwe izikhathi eziningi ngaphambili, futhi yonke imizamo yangaphambilini yehlulekile ngoba kukhona ikhanda elalingase linqunywe. Ubusha beBitcoin ukuthi isilo esingenamakhanda.

"Abantu abaningi bachitha ngokuzenzakalelayo imali ye-inthanethi (e-currency) njengesizathu esilahlekile ngenxa yazo zonke izinkampani ezahluleka kusukela ngeminyaka yawo-1990. Ngethemba ukuthi kunjalo ngokusobala kwakuyisimo esilawulwa maphakathi kuphela salezo zinhlelo lokho kubalahlekisele." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Omunye umphumela walokhu kusakazwa kwezindawo ezinkulu kuyimvelo ukumelana noshintsho. "Hambisa ngokushesha futhi uphule izinto" akwenzi futhi ngeke ungalokothi usebenze kusendlalelo sesisekelo seBitcoin. Noma kungaba efiselekayo, bekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokukholisa wonke umuntu ukuthi aguqule izindlela zakhe. Lokho kusabalalisa ukuvumelana. Leyo yimvelo yeBitcoin.

"Uhlobo lweBitcoin luthi lapho inguqulo engu-0.1 isikhishiwe, idizayini eyinhloko yamiswa njengetshe ukuphila kwayo konke." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Lesi ngesinye sezakhiwo eziningi eziyindida zeBitcoin. Safika sonke ukukholelwa ukuthi noma yini eyi-software ingashintshwa kalula. Kodwa imvelo yesilo yenza ukuyishintsha kube nzima kakhulu.

Njengoba u-Hasu ebonisa kahle Kuvumbulula Inkontileka Yomphakathi ye-Bitcoinopen in new window, ukushintsha imithetho yeBitcoin kungenzeka kuphela ngokuphakamisa ushintsho, futhi ngenxa yalokho ngokukholisa bonke abasebenzisi be-Bitcoin ukuthi bamukele lolu shintsho. Lokhu kwenza i-Bitcoin iqine kakhulu ekushintsheni, nakuba kuyisofthiwe.

Lokhu kuqina kungenye yezakhiwo ezibaluleke kakhulu zeBitcoin. Amasistimu we-software abalulekile kufanele abe nokuqina, okuyiyona nto youkusebenza kwe-Bitcoin kanye neziqinisekiso zesendlalelo sayo sobuchwepheshe. Izinhlelo zezimali ziphikisana ngokwemvelo, futhi njengoba besazi izinkulungwane zeminyaka zezisekelo eziqinile zibalulekile kumuntu ophikisana nayo imvelo.

“Lana imvula, kwafika izikhukhula, kwavunguza imimoya, yashaya ngamandla; leyondlu; futhi ayizange iwe, ngoba yasekelwe phezu kwedwala.” - Mathewu 7:24--27open in new window

Ngokungangabazeki, kulo mfanekiso wabakhi abahlakaniphile kanye neziwula i-Bitcoin akusiyo indlu. Yidwala. Okungaguquki, okunganyakazi, ukuhlinzeka isisekelo sohlelo olusha lwezezimali.

Njengezazi zokwakheka komhlaba, ezaziyo ukuthi ukwakheka kwamadwala kuhlala kuhamba kanye nokuvela, umuntu angabona ukuthi i-Bitcoin ihlezi ihamba futhi ishintsha. Udinga nje ukwazi ukuthi ungabheka kuphi nokuthi ungakubheka kanjani.

Ukwethulwa kokuthi pay to script hashopen in new window kanye nofakazi ohlukanisiweopen in new window ubufakazi bokuthi imithetho ye-Bitcoin ingashintshwa uma abasebenzisi abanele beqiniseka ukuthi ukwamukela ushintsho olushiwo kuzuzisa inethiwekhi. Okokugcina inike amandla ukuthuthukiswa kwenethiwekhi yombaniopen in new window, okungenye ye izindlu ezakhiwa phezu kwesisekelo esiqinile seBitcoin. Ukuthuthukiswa okuzayo njenge Amasiginesha e-Schnorropen in new window kuzothuthukisa ukusebenza kahle nobumfihlo, kanye nemibhalo (funda: izinkontileka ezihlakaniphile) okungeke kuhlukaniseke kuzo okwenziwa njalo sibonga ku-Taprootopen in new window. Abakhi abahlakaniphile bayakha ngempela ezisekelweni eziqinile.

USatoshi wayengeyena nje umakhi ohlakaniphile kwezobuchwepheshe. Naye waqonda ukuthi kungadingeka ukuthi kuthathwe izinqumo ezihlakaniphile ngokwemibono.

"Ukuba umthombo ovulekile kusho ukuthi noma ubani angakwazi ukubuyekeza ikhodi ngokuzimela. Uma bekungumthombo ovaliwe, akekho ongaqinisekisa isibambiso. Ngicabanga ukuthi kunjalo kubalulekile ukuze uhlelo lwalolu hlobo lube umthombo ovulekile." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Ukuvuleleka kubaluleke kakhulu ekuvikelekeni futhi kungokwemvelo kumthombo ovulekile kanye ukunyakaza kwe-software yamahhala. Njengoba u-Satoshi abonisa, izivumelwano ezivikelekile kanye ne-khodi ezisebenzisayo kufanele ivuleke --- akukho ukuphepha ngokufiphala. Enye inzuzo ihlobene futhi nokwabiwa kwamazwe: ikhodi engasetshenziswa, ifundwe, ilungiswe, ikopishwe futhi isatshalaliswe ngokukhululeka iqinisekisa ukuthi isabalaliswa kude nakude.

Imvelo yeBitcoin ehlukaniselwe ngokwedlulele yiyona eyenza inyakaze kancane futhi ngamabomu. Inethiwekhi yama-node, ngayinye eqhutshwa yisikhulu umuntu ngamunye, imelana ngokwemvelo noshintsho ---  enonya noma cha. Ayikho indlela yokuphoqelela izibuyekezo kubasebenzisi ukuphela kwendlela yokwethula izinguquko ngokukholisa kancane kancane ngamunye walabo bantu ukuthi bathathe ushintsho. Le nqubo engeyona emaphakathi yokwethula nokuthumela izinguquko yenza inethiwekhi ikwazi ukumelana nezinguquko ezinonya ngendlela emangalisayo. Ikona futhi eyenza ukulungisa izinto eziphukile kube nzima kakhulu kunokwemvelo emaphakathi, yingakho wonke umuntu ezama ukungaphuli izinto kwasekuqaleni.

I-Bitcoin yangifundisa ukuthi ukuhamba kancane kungenye yezici zayo, hhayi iphutha.


Isifundo 19: Ubumfihlo abufile


Abadlali badlale bonke kanye kanye ngaphandle kokulinda ukushintshana, futhi bexabana ngaso sonke isikhathi, kwathi emizuzwini embalwa nje uQueen wayesevutha engabaselwe, wahamba enyathela ememeza "ngekhanda lakhe!" noma "uvale ngekhanda lakhe!" cishe kanye ngomzuzu.

Uma kufanele bakholwe ochwepheshe, ubumfihlo bufile kusukela ngeminyaka yama-80iesopen in new window. I ukusungulwa okungaziwa kweBitcoin nezinye izehlakalo emlandweni wakamuva kukhombisa ukuthi akunjalo. Ubumfihlo buyaphila, nakuba bukhona akulula ukubalekela isimo sokugadwa.

USatoshi wadlula ebunzimeni obukhulu ukuze avale amathrekhi akhe futhi afihle ubuyena. Eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva, namanje akwaziwa ukuthi uSatoshi Nakamoto kwakungumuntu oyedwa, iqembu labantu, owesilisa, owesifazane, noma i- time-traveling AIopen in new window eyazibopha ukuze ithathe umhlaba. Ngaphandle kwemibono, uSatoshi wakhetha ukuziveza ukuthi abe owesilisa waseJapan, yingakho ngingacabangi kodwa ngihloniphe ubulili bakhe obukhethiwe futhi ngibhekisele kuye ngokuthi yena.

Angiyena u-Dorian Nakamoto.open in new window

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ungubani ngempela, uSatoshi waphumelela ekufihleni ukuthi ungubani. Wabekela wonke umuntu ofisa ukusala isibonelo esiyisikhuthazo sokungaziwa: kungenzeka ukuba nobumfihlo ku-inthanethi.

"Ukubethela kuyasebenza. Amasistimu e-crypto aqinile asetshenziswe ngendlela eyodwa yezinto ezimbalwa ongathembela kuzo." - Edward Snowdenopen in new window

USatoshi wayengeyena umsunguli wokuqala ongaziwa, futhi yena ngeke kube okokugcina. Abanye balingise ngokuqondile leli gama mbumbulu lesitayela sokushicilela, njengoTom Elvis Yedusor wodumo lwe-MimbleWimbleopen in new window, kuyilapho abanye bashicilele ubufakazi bezibalo obuthuthukisiwe ngenkathi lusasele ngokuphelele okungaziwaopen in new window.

Izwe elisha eliyinqaba esiphila kulo. Umhlaba lapho ukuzazi ukukhona ngokuzithandela, iminikelo yamukelwa ngokusekelwe ekuzuzeni, futhi abantu bangakwazi ukusebenzisana futhi benze ngokukhululeka. Kuzodingeka ukulungisa okuthile ukuze kutholwe ngokhululekile ngalama-modeli amasha, kodwa ngikholelwa ngokuqinile ukuthi konke lokhu kunamandla okuguqula umhlaba ube ngcono.

Kufanele sonke sikhumbule ukuthi ubumfihlo ilungelo lomuntu eliyisisekeloopen in new window. Futhi inqobo nje uma abantu besebenzisa futhi bevikela la malungelo impi yawo ubumfihlo busekude ukuphela. I-Bitcoin yangifundisa ukuthi ubumfihlo abufile.


Isifundo 20: Ama-Cypherpunks (abantu abakhuthaza ukusetshenziswa okusabalele kwe-cryptography eqinile kanye nobuchwepheshe bokuthuthukisa ubumfihlo) abhala ikhodi


Ngiyabona uzama ukusungula okuthile.

Njengemibono eminingi emihle, i-Bitcoin ayizange ivele ndawo. Yenziwa kungenzeka ngokusebenzisa nokuhlanganisa izinto ezintsha eziningi nokutholakele kuzibalo, physics, isayensi yekhompyutha, neminye imikhakha. Ngenkathi ngokungangabazeki ungqondongqondo, uSatoshi wayengeke akwazi ukusungula i-Bitcoin ngaphandle kwemidondoshiya ebekeme phezu kwamahlombe awo.

"Lowo ofisa futhi onethemba kuphela akagxambukeli ngokuhlanganyela izenzakalo kanye nokulolongwa kwesiphetho sakhe." - Ludwig Von Misesopen in new window

Omunye walezi ziqhwaga ngu-Eric Hughes, omunye wabasunguli beqembu ukunyakaza lwe-cypherpunk kanye nombhali we Cypherpunk Manifestoopen in new window. Kunzima ukucabanga ukuthi uSatoshi akazange athintwe yile manifesto. Ikhuluma ngezinto eziningi i-Bitcoin ezenza futhi izisebenzise, ​​njengokuqondile kanye nokuthengiselana okuyimfihlo, imali kagesi kanye nokheshi, amasistimu angaziwa, kanye nokuvikela ubumfihlo nge-cryptography namasignesha edijithali.

“Ubumfihlo buyadingeka kumphakathi ovulekile kule minyaka yama-elekthronikhi. [...] Njengoba sifisa ubumfihlo, kufanele siqinisekise ukuthi iqembu ngalinye linolwazi kuphela oludingeka ngqo ngalokho kuthengiselana. [...]

Ngakho-ke, ubumfihlo emphakathini ovulekile budinga ukuthengiselana okungaziwa izinhlelo. Kuze kube manje, ukheshi bekulokhu kuwuhlelo oluyinhloko olunjalo. Isistimu yokwenziwayo engaziwa ayiyona isistimu yokwenziwayo eyimfihlo. [...]

Thina ma-Cypherpunk sizinikele ekwakheni amasistimu angaziwa. Sivikela ubumfihlo bethu nge-cryptography, nge-imeyili engaziwa amasistimu okudlulisela phambili, anamasiginesha edijithali, nemali ye-elekthronikhi.

Ama-Cypherpunk abhala ikhodi." - Eric Hughesopen in new window

Ama-Cypherpunks awatholi induduzo emathembeni nasezifisweni. Basebenza ngenkuthalo baphazamisa ukuqhubeka kwezehlakalo futhi balolonge isiphetho sazo. Ama-Cypherpunks abhala ikhodi.

Ngakho, ngendlela yeqiniso ye-cypherpunk, uSatoshi wahlala phansi futhi waqala ukubhala ikhodi. Ikhodi eyathatha umbono ongacacile futhi yafakazela umhlaba ukuthi injalo yasebenza ngempela. Ikhodi eyatshala imbewu yeqiniso elisha lezomnotho. Ngenxa yale khodi, wonke umuntu angaqinisekisa ukuthi lolu hlelo lwenoveli empeleni liyasebenza, futhi njalo ngemizuzu eyi-10 noma kanjalo ubufakazi beBitcoin emhlabeni ukuthi bunjalo esaphila.

Izingcaphuno zekhodi zenguqulo ye-Bitcoin engu-0.1.0

Ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukuqamba kwakhe okusha kudlula iphupho futhi kuba ngokoqobo, USatoshi wabhala ikhodi ukuze asebenzise umbono wakhe ngaphambi kokuba abhale i-Whitepaper. Uphinde waqinisekisa ukuthi ukungabambezeliopen in new window noma yikuphi ukukhishwa unaphakade. Ngemva kwakho konke, "kuzohlale kukhona into eyodwa okumele yenziwe."

“Kwakumele ngibhale yonke ikhodi ngaphambi kokuthi ngiziqinisekise ukuthi mina ngingaxazulula zonke izinkinga, ngabe sengibhala iphepha." - Satoshi Nakamotoopen in new window

Ezweni lanamuhla lezithembiso ezingapheli kanye nokubulawa okungabazekayo, umsebenzi esakhiweni esizinikezele sasidingeka kakhulu. Yenza ngamabomu, kholisa ngokwakho ukuthi ungakwazi ngempela ukuxazulula izinkinga, futhi uqalise izixazululo. Sonke kufanele sihlose ukuba yi-cypherpunk eyengeziwe.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ama-cypherpunks abhala ikhodi.


Isifundo 21: Izingathekiso zekusasa le-Bitcoin


Ngiyazi ukuthi kukhona okuthakazelisayo kuzokwenzeka nakanjani...

Emashumini ambalwa eminyaka adlule, kwabonakala ukuthi zobuchwepheshe eziisha azilandeli ithrendi yomugqa. Ukuthi uyakholelwa kubunye bezobuchwepheshe noma cha, akunakuphikwa ukuthi inqubekelaphambili injalo iyakhuphuka ngokushesha emikhakheni eminingi. Hhayi lokho kuphela, kodwa izinga lapho zobuchwepheshe ziyamukelwa liyakhula ngesivinini, futhi ngaphambi kokuthi wazi ihlathi elisegcekeni lesikole sendawo liphelile futhi izingane zakho zisebenzisa I-Snapchat esikhundleni salokho. Amajika akhuphuka ngesivinini anomkhuba wokukushaya phakathi ebusweni ngaphambi kokuba uwabone eza.

I-Bitcoin iwubuchwepheshe obukhulayo obakhelwe phezu kobuchwepheshe obukhulayo. Umhlaba Wethu Ngedathaopen in new window ubonisa kahle ijubane elikhulayo lokwamukelwa kwezobuchwephesheopen in new window, kusukela ngo-1903 ngokwethulwa ucingo lwasendlini. Izingcingo zasendlini, ugesi, amakhompyutha, i-inthanethi, ama-smartphone; konke kulandela amathrendi aphezulu ekusebenzeni kwentengo nokwamukelwa. I-Bitcoin nayo futhi.

I-Bitcoin ayikho ngokoqobo emashadini.

I-Bitcoin ayinayo eyodwa kodwa imiphumela yenethiwekhi eminingiopen in new window, konke lokhu okuholela emaphethini okukhula okuchazile endaweni yawo: intengo, abasebenzisi, ukuphepha, onjiniyela, isabelo semakethe, nokutholwa njengemali yomhlaba jikelele.

Ngemva kokusinda ebuntwaneni bayo, i-Bitcoin iyaqhubeka ikhula nsuku zonke izici eziningi kunesodwa. Kuyavunywa, ubuchwepheshe abukafinyeleli ekuvuthweni okwamanje. Kungase kube sebusheni bayo. Kodwa uma ubuchwepheshe bukhula ngesivini, indlela esuka ekusithekeni iye endaweni yonke imfushane.

Iselula, ca 1965 vs 2019.

Enkulumweni yakhe TED yango-2003open in new window, uJeff Bezos wakhetha ukusebenzisa ugesi njengesingathekiso sekusasa lewebhu. Zontathu lezi zenzakalo --- ugesi, i i-inthanethi, i-Bitcoin --- zinika amandla ubuchwepheshe, amanethiwekhi anika amandla ezinye izinto. Ziyingqalasizinda okufanele yakhelwe phezu kwayo, isisekelo sayo imvelo.

Ugesi usunesikhathi eside ukhona. Siwuthatha kalula. I-inthanethi yintsha impela, kodwa abantu abaningi sebevele bayithathele yona inikezwe futhi. I-Bitcoin ineminyaka eyishumi ubudala futhi isingene emphakathini ukwazi ngesikhathi somjikelezo wokugcina wokwaziwa. Abamukeli bokuqala kuphela abayithatha kalula. Njengoba isikhathi esiningiopen in new window sidlula, abantu abaningi ngokwengeziwe baqaphela i-Bitcoin njengento nje.

Ngo-1994, i-inthanethi yayisadida futhi ingaqondakali. Ukubuka lokhu endala ukurekhodwa kohlelo lwanamuhlaopen in new window kwenza kube sobala ukuthi lokho okuzwakalayo engokwemvelo futhi okunembile manje empeleni kwakungekho ngaleso sikhathi. I-Bitcoin namanje iyadida futhi ayifani kwabaningi, kodwa njengoba nje i-inthanethi iyimvelo yesibili kubantu bomdabu bedijithali, ukusetshenziswa kwemali kanye nokunqwabelanisaopen in new window ama-sats kuzoba imvelo yesibili kwabomdabu be-Bitcoin bakusasa.

"Ikusasa selifikile vele --- alilingani kakhulu ngokusatshalaliswa." - William Gibsonopen in new window

Ngo-1995, cishe i-15% yabantu abadala baseMelika basebenzisa i-inthanethi. Okomlando idatha evela ku-Pew Research Centeropen in new window ibonisa ukuthi i-inthanethi ixhunyiwe kanjani uqobo ezimpilweni zethu zonke. Ngokusho kwenhlolovo yabathengiopen in new window yeLebhu ka-Kaspersky, u-13% wabaphenduli basebenzise i-Bitcoin nama-clones ayo ukuze bakhokhele izimpahla ngo-2018. Nakuba izinkokhelo kungezona kuphela zokusetshenziswa kwe-bitcoin, kunezinye izinkomba zokuthi sikuphi ngesikhathi se-inthanethi: ekuqaleni- kuya phakathi nawo-90s.

Ngo-1997, uJeff Bezos wathi encwadini eya kubanikazi bamasheyaopen in new window "lolu usuku lokuqala lwe-inthanethi," ngokubona amandla amakhulu angasetshenzisiwe we-inthanethi futhi, ngokwengeza, nenkampani yakhe. Noma ngabe yiluphi usuku lolu lwe-Bitcoin, inani elikhulu lamandla angasetshenzisiwe licacile kubo bonke ngaphandle kwesibukeli esivamile.

I-inthanethi, 1982 vs 2005. Umthombo: cc-by Merit Network, Inc. kanye ne-Barrett Lyon, iphrojekthi ye-Opte

Indawo yokuqala ye-Bitcoin yangena ku-inthanethi ngo-2009 ngemuva kokuthi uSatoshi emba i- genesis blockopen in new window futhi wakhulula isofthiwe endle. I-node yakhe yayingekho yodwa isikhathi eside. U-Hal Finney ube ngomunye wabantu bokuqala ukucosha umbono bese ujoyina inethiwekhi. Eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva, njengoba lokhu kubhalwa, ngaphezulu kuna 75.000open in new window ama-node asebenzayo we-Bitcoinopen in new window.

Isendlalelo sesisekelo sephrothokholi akusona ukuphela kwento ekhula ngokushesha. Inethiwekhi yombani, ubuchwepheshe besendlalelo sesibili, bukhula ngesilinganiso esisheshayo.

NgoJanuwari 2018, inethiwekhi yombani yaba namanodi angu-40open in new window kanye namashaneli angu-60. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, inethiwekhi ikhule yaba ngaphezu kwama-node angama-4000 futhi nxazonke 40.000 iziteshi. Khumbula ukuthi lobu kusewubuchwepheshe bokuhlola lapho ukulahleka kwezimali kungenzeka futhi kwenzeka. Nokho ithrendi icacileopen in new window: izinkulungwane zabantu azinakiopen in new window futhi zizimisele ukuyisebenzisa.

Lightning Network, January 2018 vs December 2018. Umthombo: Jameson Lopp

Kimina, ngiphile ngokuphakama kwe-meteoric kuwebhu, ukufana phakathi kwe-inthanethi ne-Bitcoin kusobala. Womabili amanethiwekhi, zombili ziwubuchwepheshe obukhula ngokushesha, futhi zombili zinika amandla amathuba amasha, izimboni ezisha, izindlela ezintsha zokuphila. Njengoba nje ugesi wawusingathekiso esingcono kakhulu ukuqonda lapho i-inthanethi iphokophele khona, i-inthanethi ingase ibe yisingathekiso esingcono kakhulu sokuqonda ukuthi i-bitcoin iphokophelephi. Noma, kumazwi ka-Andreas Antonopoulos, i-Bitcoin iyi I-inthanethi Yemaliopen in new window. Lezi zingathekiso ziyisikhumbuzo esihle sokuthi ngenkathi umlando ungaziphindi ngokwawo, uvame ukwenza imvumelwano.

Ubuchwepheshe obukhula ngokushesha kunzima ukubuqonda futhi ngokuvamile bubukelwa phansi. Noma nginentshisekelo enkulu kubuchwepheshe obunjalo, ngivame ukumangazwa ijubane lenqubekelaphambili kanye nokuqanjwa okusha. Ukubuka i-Bitcoin ikhula kufana nokubuka ukukhuphuka kwe-inthanethi ngokushesha-phambili. Kuyajabulisa.

Isifiso sami sokuzama ukuqonda i-Bitcoin singiholele ezindleleni zomlando ngezindlela ezingaphezu kweyodwa. Ukuqonda umphakathi wezakhiwo zasemandulo, izimali ezedlule, kanye nendlela amanethiwekhi okuxhumana avela ngayo konke ingxenye yohambo. Kusukela ku-handaxe kuya ku-smartphone, ubuchwepheshe ngokungangabazeki kushintsha umhlaba wethu izikhathi eziningi. Ubuchwepheshe benenethiwekhi bushintsha ikakhulukazi: ukubhala, imigwaqo, ugesi, i-inthanethi. Konke kwashintsha umhlaba. I-Bitcoin ishintshile awami (umhlaba) futhi izoqhubeka nokuguqula izingqondo nezinhliziyo zalabo abanesibindi sokusebenzisa yona.

I-Bitcoin ingifundise ukuthi ukuqonda okwedlule kubalulekile ukuqonda ikusasa layo. Ikusasa elisaqala.

Isiphetho: Izifundo Ezifundiwe


Qala ekuqaleni,” kusho iNkosi, kabi kakhulu, “futhi uqhubeke uze ufike ekugcineni: bese ume.”

Njengoba kushiwo ekuqaleni, ngicabanga ukuthi noma iyiphi impendulo yombuzo othi * "Ini okufunde kuBitcoin?”* iyohlala ingaphelele. Ubudlelwano obungabonwa njengamasistimu okuphila amaningi — Bitcoin, i-technosphere, kanye nezomnotho — i=buhlangene kakhulu, izihloko ziningi kakhulu, futhi izinto ziyahamba ngokushesha kakhulu ukuba buqondwe ngokugcwele ngumuntu oyedwa.

Ngisho nangaphandle kokuliqonda ngokugcwele, futhi ngisho nangazo zonke izingqinamba zalo kanye nokubonakala kwalo amaphutha, i-Bitcoin ngokungangabazeki iyasebenza. Ilokhu ikhiqiza amabhlogo cishe njalo imizuzu eyishumi futhi yenza kahle kakhulu. Uma i-Bitcoin iqhubeka isikhathi eside nokusebenza, abantu abaningi bazokhetha ukungena ukuze bayisebenzise.

"Kuyiqiniso ukuthi izinto zinhle uma zisebenza. Ubuciko buwumsebenzi." - Giannina Braschiopen in new window

I-Bitcoin iyingane ye-inthanethi. Ikhula ngamandla, ifiphalisa imigqa phakathi kweziyalo. Akucaci, ngokwesibonelo, lapho indawo yokuhlanzeka ubuchwepheshe buphela futhi lapho omunye umbuso uqala. Noma i-Bitcoin idinga amakhompyutha ukusebenza kahle, isayensi yekhompyutha ayanele ukuyiqonda. I-Bitcoin ayigcini nje ngokungenamngcele ngokuphathelene nokusebenza kwayo kwangaphakathi kodwa futhi ayinamngcele maqondana neziyalo zezemfundo.

Ezomnotho, ezombusazwe, ithiyori yegeyimu, umlando wemali, ithiyori yenethiwekhi, ezezimali, i-cryptography, i-information theory, i-censorship, umthetho kanye nomthethonqubo, womuntu inhlangano, isayikholoji — konke lokhu nokunye okuningi kuyizindawo zobuchwepheshe ezingase zibe usizo ekufuneni ukuqonda ukuthi i-Bitcoin isebenza kanjani nokuthi iyini i-Bitcoin.

Akukho okusunguliwe okukodwa okunesibopho sokuphumelela kwakho. Kuyinhlanganisela yezingcezu eziningi, ezingahlobene ngaphambilini, ezihlanganiswe ndawonye yizikhuthazo zetiyori yomdlalo, ezakha uguquko okuyiBitcoin. Inhlanganisela enhle yeziyalo eziningi yikho okwenza uSatoshi ungqondongqondo.

Njengazo zonke izinhlelo eziyinkimbinkimbi, i-Bitcoin kufanele yenze ukuhwebelana ngokusebenza kahle, izindleko, ukuphepha, nezinye izakhiwo eziningi. Njengoba nje kungekho isisombululo esiphelele sokuthola isikwele embuthanweni, noma yisiphi isisombululo sezinkinga I-Bitcoin izama ukuxazulula izohlale ingaphelele futhi.

“Angikholwa ukuthi sizophinde sibe nemali enhle ngaphambi kokuthi sithathe into ephuma ezandleni zikahulumeni, okungukuthi, asikwazi ukuyithatha ngodlame siphuma ezandleni zikahulumeni, esingakwenza nje wukuzulazula ngobuqili bethule into abangakwazi ukuyiyeka." - [Friedrich Hayek](https://youtu.be/EYhEDxFwFRU?t=1124

I-Bitcoin iyindlela enobuqili, ejikelezayo yokwethula kabusha imali enhle emhlabeni. Yenza kanjalo ngokubeka umuntu ozimele ngemuva kwenodi ngayinye, njengoDa Vinci wazama ukuxazulula inkinga engaphenduki yokukweqa indilinga ngokubeka I-Vitruvian Man phakathi nendawo yayo. Amanodi asusa ngempumelelo noma yimuphi umqondo wesikhungo, ukudala uhlelo oluqinile ngokumangazayo futhi okunzima kakhulu ukuluvala phansi. I-Bitcoin iyaphila, futhi ukushaya kwenhliziyo yayo cishe kuzodlula konke okwethu.

Ngethemba ukuthi uzijabulele lezi zifundo ezingamashumi amabili nanye. Mhlawumbe isifundo esibaluleke kakhulu ukuthi i-Bitcoin kufanele ihlolwe ngokuphelele, kusuka kuma-engeli amaningi, uma umuntu angathanda ukuba nento ecishe ibe nesithombe esiphelele. Njengokususa ingxenye eyodwa ohlelweni oluyinkimbinkimbi kubhubhisa konke, ukuhlola izingxenye zo I-Bitcoin iyodwa ibonakala ingcolisa ukuqonda kwayo. Uma nje umuntu oyedwa kushaya i-"blockchain" embhalweni wakhe wamagama bese efaka "uchungechunge lwamabhlogi" ngizofa indoda ejabule.

Kunoma yikuphi, uhambo lwami luyaqhubeka. Ngihlela ukuqhubeka ngingene phansi ekujuleni kwalokhu imbobo yanogwaja, futhi ngikumema ukuthi umakeopen in new window uze uhambe nami.

Thenga incwadi »open in new window

Ukubonga


"Ngiyabonga," kusho u-Alice

Ngibonga ababhali nabakhiqizi bokuqukethwe abangenakubalwa ababe nomthelela kukucabanga kwami ​​​​nge-Bitcoin nezihloko ezithintayo. Lapho ziningi kakhulu ukuthi ngingazibala zonke, kodwa ngizokwenza konke okusemandleni ami ukubala ezimbalwa.

Ngiyabonga: ...ngokukufunda, ukuba lapha, ukuzama ukuqonda.


Kubukeka kukuhle kakhulu,” esho lapho eseqedile, “kodwa kunzima ukukuqonda!”

Siyabonga ngokufunda Izifundo ezingama-21. Uma uyijabulele incwadi, ngicela uthenge ikhophiopen in new window, shiya isibuyekezoopen in new window, noma wabelane ngakho nabangani bakho. Ungakwazi futhi ukuthenga ikhophi esayiniweopen in new window. Uma unezinye iziphakamiso zokuthuthukiswa, ngicela ungithinte laphaopen in new window.

Njengamanje ngisebenzela kwiphrojekthi yesibili, enesifiso esikhulu: 21 Waysopen in new window. Ungakwazi ukungisekela ku-Patreonopen in new window ukuze uthole amazwibela akhethekile futhi kusenesikhathi ukufinyelela okusalungiswa kwamanje, umsebenzi wobuciko, nezinye izinto. Ungakwazi futhi ukungisekela ngokuqondileopen in new window nge-Bitcoin.

Ukwesekwa kwakho kungivumela ukuthi ngibekele isikhathi esengeziwe ukubhala nokudala imfundo yamahhala, enemithombo evulekile. Yilokho engikuthanda ukukwenza. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngiyokwazi ukunikela sonke isikhathi sami kukho ngolunye usuku. Kunina nonke enigesekayo: ngiyabonga. Kusukela ekujuleni kwenhliziyo yami.

Ngiyabonga. 🙏🧡

Down The Rabbit Hole

Through the Looking Glass

Ngemva kokubhala i-21 Lessons, ngibhale ama-athikili nama-eseyi athile ukuhlola ezimbalwa Izici zeBitcoin ngokuqhubekayo. Lezi zihloko zimakwe nge-🔍.

Njengamanje ngibhala incwadi yami yesibili 21 Waysopen in new window.


Down the Rabbit Hole

Thola zonke izixhumanisi ze-'Down the Rabbit Hole' zesifundo ngasinye ngezansi. Uhlu olukhethiwe lwezinsiza ze-Bitcoin luyatholakala ku-bitcoin-resources.comopen in new window.


Isifundo 1: Ukungaguquki kanye noshintsho


Isifundo 2: Ukushoda Kokushoda


Isifundo 3: Ukuphindaphinda kanye nendawo


Isifundo 4: Inkinga yobunikazi


Isifundo 5: Umcabango omuhle


Isifundo 6: Amandla wenkululeko yokukhuluma


Isifundo 7: Imikhawulo yolwazi


Isifundo 8: Ukungazi lutho ngezezimali


Isifundo 9: I-infuleyisheni


Isifundo 10: Inani


Isifundo 11: Imali


Isifundo 12: Umlando nokuwa kwemali


Isifundo 13: Umsangano we-Fractional Reserve


Isifundo 14: Imali enzinzile


Isifundo 15: Amandla kwizinombolo


Isifundo 16: Ukuzindla kokuthi "Ungathembi, Qinisekisa"


Isifundo 17: Ukufunda isikhathi kuthatha umsebenzi


Isifundo 18: Hamba kancane futhi ungaphuli izinto


Isifundo 19: Ubumfihlo abufile


Isifundo 20: Ama-Cypherpunks (abantu abakhuthaza ukusetshenziswa okusabalele kwe-cryptography eqinile kanye nobuchwepheshe bokuthuthukisa ubumfihlo) abhala ikhodi


Isifundo 21: Izingathekiso zekusasa le-Bitcoin


Further resources: bitcoin-resources.com